Sclerotium rolfsii is a plant pathogen causing collar rot diseases in several plants including Chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.). An in-vitro experiment was conducted to study the potential of different isolates of Trichoderma spp collected from different agro-ecological regions of Nepal on inhibition of growth of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. in Plant pathology Laboratory of Agriculture and Forestry University, Nepal. The pathogenic isolate of S. rolfsii was isolated from symptomatic tomato and maintained in PDA. Several Trichoderma spp were isolated from soil of several locations using Trichoderma selective media (TSM) and maintained in PDA plates. The potential ability of Trichoderma isolates in controlling the pathogen was observed using dual culture and sclerotial parasitization techniques. Colony morphology and morphological features of sporulating structures of different isolates of Trichoderma spp were compared. Among all eight tested isolates, Trichoderma isolates isolated from Palpa district of Nepal gave maximum inhibition percent of S.rolfsii on 2(90.500%), 3(94.666%), 4(97.746%) and 5(100%) days after inoculation in dual culture. The average growth of mycelium of S. rolfsii on PDA plates treated with liquid culture filtrate (LCF) of Trichoderma was maximum in isolate isolated from Tarahara and minimum in Palpa isolate. Among eight sclerotia of S.rolfsii inoculated in PDA plates treated with LCF of different isolates of Trichoderma spp, minimum germination of sclerotia was obtained in the plates treated with Palpa isolate at 3 (25%), 5 (29.16%), 7 (29.16%) and 9 (29.16%) days after inoculation. Morphological variation of Trichoderma spp was observed even within the isolates of same sample and same location. Rampur isolates (collected from rice and vegetable farm) showed slightly lighter green color whereas Palpa isolate gave a darker green color than all other isolates.
The Mangrove Oyster, Crassostrea gasar is one of the most economically important shell mollusc in Nigeria. In the present study, investigations were made on the accumulation of seven (7) heavy metals, lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Iron (Fe), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) in water, sediment and Crassostrea gasar (flesh and shell) inhabiting Ebute – Oko, Tomaro, and Agala axis of the Lagos Lagoon. The analyses, conducted using standard method revealed lower heavy metal concentrations in the flesh of C. gasar during wet season while the concentrations in oyster shell, lagoon water and sediment were higher during dry season. Fe was recorded with the highest mean concentration in all the samples throughout the seasons. The lagoon sediments had the highest concentrations of all the metals in all the three sites examined. The bio-water accumulation factors showed that the oyster flesh accumulated all the seven heavy metals detected in the lagoon but in varying concentrations with Fe (> 20mg/l) as the highest while Cd (≤ 0.6mg/l) was recorded as the lowest accumulated heavy metals. The bio-sediment accumulation factors in the oyster flesh were less than 1 (< 1mg/l). The results of heavy metals concentrations obtained in this study were within the limit of FAO and WHO recommended for bivalves consumption, therefore, the oysters’ flesh was safe for consumption and can also serve as a good bio-indicator for pollution monitoring in our aquatic ecosystem.
The mineral composition of stored freeze dried cow milk cheese and soy cheese in selected packaging materials was investigated. 300g each of fresh cow milk and soy milk cheese was prepared and cut into sizes of 2x2cm dimension and a thickness of 0.2cm. The initial properties were determined using 50g each of the cheeses while the remaining 250g was freeze dried. The initial properties of the freeze dried samples were determined using a portion of each of the samples. A randomized experimental block design was adopted. The freeze dried samples were packaged in sterilized glass jar, plastic jar and polythene film while the unpackaged sample was used as the control sample. The samples were stored at ambient room conditions for 3 months. Samples were analyzed for mineral composition monthly during the storage period. Data obtained were analyzed statistically to determine the effect of the packaging materials and storage durations on the mineral composition of freeze dried cheese samples. Result of the mineral composition for the fresh cow milk and soy cheese for potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium, and sodium were 7.0±0.3, 5.22±0.11, 6.32±0.12, 11.12±0.40, 3.30±0.06 and 7.04±0.04, 5.14±0.14, 6.20±0.32, 10.76±0.60, 3.52±0.85 respectively while the result for the freeze dried cow milk and soy cheese before storage were 7.12±0.12, 5.20±0.40, 5.45±0.12, 15.85±0.03, 5.20±0.40 and 7.19±0.32, 5.10±0.60, 5.32±0.11, 13.40±0.35, 5.40±0.32 respectively. Results showed that statistically, there was no significant difference in the mineral composition of the stored cheese samples during the storage period (3 months). The packaging material type used and storage duration has no significant effect on the minerals of the cow milk and soy milk cheeses after 3 months of storage. This indicates that all the packaging material types used retain the mineral composition of freeze dried cheese.
The experiment to evaluate the effect of insecticide (chilli pepper aqueous extract) and fungicide (carbendazim 12% W.P. + Mancozeb 63% W.P.) combinations on the growth and yield of watermelon (citrullus lunatus) in Enugu area southeastern Nigeria was conducted during the 2016 cropping season. The research was carried out at the faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management Teaching and Research Farm of Enugu State University of Science and Technology Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria. The experimental design was 3x2 factorial in a randomized complete block (RCB) replicated three (3) times, using “crimson sweet” watermelon as a test crop. Parameters measured were days to 50% flowering, vine length (cm) number of fruits per plant, number of marketable fruits per plants, number of rotten fruits per plant and fruit yield (tonha‑1). The result of the experiment showed a significant (P = 0.05) interaction effect of insecticide (Chilli Pepper aqueous extract) and fungicide (Carbendazim 12% W.P. + Mancozeb 63% W.P.) combinations on all the parameters measured except on the number of fruits per plant.
The evaluation of the effects of cropping practices on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soil is of great importance in sustainable agriculture. This study investigated the spore density, root colonization and composition of native AMF in soils under two different cropping systems (continuous cropping and crop rotation) in a derived Savannah, Nigeria. Rhizosphere soils and root samples were collected from five fields to assessed AMF spores density and root colonization. The spore density and root colonization was highest in field plot under crop rotation practice (273.3 spores per 50 g dry soil and 82.7 respectively). Maize and soybean cultivation significantly produced higher spore density and root colonization compared to sesame and sunflower. AMF spores of Glomus, Gigaspora, Acaulospora, and Scutellospora species were identified based on morphological characteristics. Glomus specie was the most dominant genus in soils with highest relative abundance of 68.7% followed by Acaulospora (19.8%) and Scutellospora (13.5%), with lowest relative abundance of AM spores observed for Gigaspora (5.6%) and unknown genera (2.5%). The results contribute to a better understanding of AMF composition as influenced by the cropping practices and host plants, and could be valuable in regulating the AMF community structure, and providing a primary basis for sustainable crop production.
Reduction in post harvest losses must inevitably start with minimizing losses during harvesting. So far, grain stripping harvester is a technology which is being developed and is becoming effective for rice and wheat harvesting. Grain losses in stripping harvester occur at the gathering/stripping operation which are shattering, stubble and lodging losses. The harvest loss estimation of rice harvesting with a self propelled grain stripper developed in Nigeria was carried out. At best machine settings, determined were critical operating parameters to obtain total minimum harvest loss estimation which was 13.5% of the total yield while the manual harvesting loss was 20.3% under the same condition. The machine setting at this combination was rotor height of 270.0 mm, peripheral rotor speed of 670.0 rpm and forward speed was 3.0 km/h which gave shattering loss as 5.5%, stubble loss was 4.9% and lodging loss was 3.1% of the total yield. It was found that planting pure seed variety will reduce stripper header losses at harvest because it will result in uniform crop height at maturity which was one of the design factors that affected the harvester performance on the field. Keywords:Estimation, field loss, stripper, rice, developed
Fertilizer studies in Kenya tea industry have focused predominantly on compound NPK. These fertilizers cannot be easily manipulated for specific soils and tea clones. In this respect, Athi River Mining limited has produced Mavuno blended NPK fertilizers with calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). However, their application rates that would result in optimal nutrients uptake are lacking. This is the knowledge gap that this study sought to address. Therefore, the fertilizer blends were assessed for their effects on nutrients uptake at different rate in two sites. The sites were selected purposefully, one in the eastern and the other in the western tea growing areas. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) were used to select 36 trial plots in the two areas which were treated with three fertilizer types where one type was control, and four fertilizer application rates with one rate being a control. The trial was replicated three times. Leaf samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients content. The data were then subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Mstat C computer software package. Two leaves and a bud had higher nitrogen content (Timbilil 4.84%; Kagochi 4.53%) compared to deficient levels in mature leaf (Timbilil 2.26%; Kagochi 2.95%). This study has shown that supplementing the soil applied NPK fertilizers with calcium, magnesium and micronutrients resulted in better nutrients uptake.
‘FH-326’ cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was developed by the Cotton Research Station (CRS), Faisalabad, Pakistan, and approved by Punjab Seed Council in 48th meeting on 06-03-2017. This variety developed as a part of investigations oriented towards evolving high-yielding cotton cultivars that can tolerate drought stress.FH-326 was developed through making the cross between FH-942 (Non-Bt.) and FH-114 (Bt.). FH-326 was tested in multiple trials conducted by various public agencies. In Provincial Coordinated Cotton Trial (PCCT) FH-326 out yielded (more than 35%) significantly to both standards FH-142 and MNH-886. In the National Coordinated Varietal Trial (NCVT), FH-326 produced more Seed Cotton Yield than the standards for two consecutive years (2016 and 2017). FH-326 is highly drought tolerant variety (Required 4 irrigation instead of 8 after germination) and also possesses high fiber quality (staple length 29.2 mm and fiber fineness 4.2 µg/inch). The commercial cultivation of this variety will contribute sustainability of cotton production in Pakistan and can also be used as valuable genetic resource in future cotton breeding programs.
A field experiment to investigate the effect of spacing and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer on the growth and yield of watermelon was conducted at the teaching and Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Enugu State University of Science and Technology. The experiment was carried out in a 2 x 3 factorial in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with six (6) treatments replicated three (3) times using “crimson sweet” as a test crop. Parameters measured were vine length, number of fruits per plant, days to 50% flowering, fruit yield (ton/ha), and number of marketable fruits. 400kg/ha fertilizer in spacing 30cm x 30cm plots recorded the highest vine length of 193.8 cm which significantly deferred from the other treatment means. This was followed by 200kg/ha fertilizer in spacing of 30 cm x 30 cm which recorded vine length of 151.50 cm that significantly deferred from the rest of the treatment means. There were no significant differences between 400kg/ha fertilizer in 15 cm x 15 cm plots and 200kg/ha fertilizer in 15 cm x 15cm plots, O kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm pots and O kg/ha fertilizer in 15cm x 15 cm plots on vine length. 400kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots recorded the highest mean number of 34.33 fruits per plant which deferred significantly from the rest of the treatment means. The following treatments produced the same effects on the number of fruits per plant – 200kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots and 400kg/ha fertilizer in 15 cm x 15 cm plots, O kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots and O kg/ha fertilizer in 1 5cm x 15cm plots. On fruit yield (ton/ha) 400kg/ha fertilizer in 30cm x 30cm plots, and 200kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots produced the highest yield of 13.44 ton/ha and 13.22 ton/ha respectively which were not significantly different except the controls – O kg/ha fertilizer in 15cm x 15cm and O kg/ha fertilizer in 30 cm x 30 cm plots which yielded 3.89 ton/ha and 5.48 ton/ha respectively. 400kg/ha fertilizer in 30cm x 30cm, 400kg/ha fertilizer in 15cm x 15cm, 200kg/ha fertilizer in 30cm x 30cm and 200kg/ha fertilizer in 15cm x 15cm plots recorded mean number of 9.33, 9.00, 7.00 and 8.33 marketable fruits per plant respectively which were significantly the same except the controls. There was no treatment effect on the number of days to 50% flowering. There was no interaction (AB) effect on vine length (cm) between NPK 20:10:10 and spacing. Also, there was no interaction effect between NPK 20:10:10 and spacing on the number of fruits per plant. There was a significant interaction effect between NPK 20:10:10 and spacing on the fruit yield (ton/ha), so also on the number of marketable fruits. There was no interaction effect between NPK 20:10:10 and spacing on the number of days to 50% flowering.
Five honeybee hives already colonized by honeybee were used in the study aimed at evaluating the effect of seasons of the year on weight gain by honeybee hive. The weight of these hives were reduced (by partial harvesting) to an average initial weight of 2.76kg the night preceding the experiment (30th of April, 2007) for seasons \'\'A\'\'. On the night of the last day of October the hives were weighed with the average weight gain for the hives standing at 6.27kg. This represents the initial weight of the hives for season “B”. Season “C” initial average weight was 13.13kg. The average weight of the beehives at the end of the season was 17.26kg. The average daily weight gain for each season was determined by dividing the weight gain for each season by the number of days (the observation lasted for). That is 184 days for season “A”, 92 days for season “B” and 89 days for “C”. The wet and dry bulbs thermometers were used in determining the micro-temperature and relative humidity. The micro-climatic readings were taken three times daily (6am, 12pm and 6pm) during the observation. The number of honeybees leaving and returning to the hives were observed and recorded. The study showed a significant difference (p<0.05) in terms of final weight gain and average daily weight gain in favour of “B”. The study also demonstrated that temperature and relative humidity affect honeybee foraging. Honeybee foraging affects weight gain.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology