This study was carried out to evaluate how differently processed Bambara nut (Vigna subterrenean) seed meal could influence the haematological characteristics of grower rabbits for a period of eight weeks. Twenty grower rabbits aged 10 to 12 weeks were used for this study. The rabbits were raised intensively and were provided with feed and clean drinking water. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 25% RBSM, SBSM, CBSM and TBSM and coded as T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. The four treatment groups were assigned to the four experimental diets in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Each treatment was replicated five times with one (1) rabbit per replicate. Blood samples were collected from each replicate for haematological analysis. The experimental data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) in a completely randomized design, using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16. There were (P<0.05) significant differences among treatment groups for all the haernatological parameters evaluated. RBC results obtained were 45.55%, 32.28%, 47.58% and 33.59% for T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. WBC were 8.739x10, 4.659x 10, 7.909x10, and 7.119 x 10 /l for T , T , T and 9 1 2 3T diets respectively. From the findings of this study, soaked Bambara nut seed meal at 25% is non-toxic and can support and maintain a good health status of grower rabbits.
One hundred and twenty (120) apparently healthy day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks, were used in a study to evaluate the effects of substitution of antibiotics with selected medicinal plant leaf meal on their production indices. The study which was carried out from September to November 2022 consists of eight treatment groups designated as T to T . Eight experimental diets were formulated such that T served as the control, T 1 8 1 2 (5% Moringa oleifera leaf meal), T (5% Neem leaf meal) T (5% Spondias mombin leaf meal), T (2.5% 3 4 5 combination each of moringa and Neem leaf meal), T (2.5% combination each of Moringa and Spondias 6 mombin leaf meal) T (2.5% combination each of Neem and Spondias mombin leaf meal), and T (1.66% each 7 8 of Moringa, Neem and Spondias mombin leaf meal) respectively. Parameters evaluated for the broiler chicken include weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, haematology and carcass characteristics of the broilers. The study lasted for 63 days. Data collected were subjected to a one-way analysis of variance using SPSS,22. Mean separation was done using the least significant difference. The weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio as well percentage mortality for the broiler chicken all differed (P<0.05). The broiler chicken dressed weight, dressing percentage, breast cut, thigh, drumstick, shank and wing were significant (P<0.05) higher for T . The organs of the broiler chicken such as gizzard, crops, 4 proventriculus, small intestine, large intestine and caecum were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the feeding trial. The WBC, Hb and the platelet of the broiler chicken were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the study materials. The work therefore recommends that medicinal plant leaf meal can be used in place of antibiotics growth promoters as they positively affected the broiler growth performance.
The study was conducted to determine the effects of upland rice and lowland preceding varieties, and N fertilization on growth and productivity upland rice grown the same year in two locations in the inland valley of Nigeria. The experiment was split plot design with two preceding lowland rice varieties (Jasmine and Funaabor-2) as main plots and five levels of N (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1) for the succeeding upland rice as split plot treatments with 3 replications. Results showed that upland rice grown after FUNAABOR-2 variety gave significant (p < 0.05) number of leaves, chlorophyll content, number of tillers, dry matter, panicle per m2, panicle weight and grain yield than Jasmine variety was the preceding crop. Rice grown after Funaabor-2 exhibited 54% grain yield increments compared to growing Jasmine in Igbogila. The effects of preceding lowland rice varieties on the yield components and grain yield of upland rice was pronounced more in Alabata (671 kg ha-1) than Igbogila (1077 kg ha-1). Similarly, linear responses to N application from 0-120 kg ha-1 were observed on the growth and yield components of rice in both locations. Thus, Cultivation of Funaabor-2 and increasing the rate of N application from 90 to 120 kg ha-1 is recommended to boost rice growth and yield, increase profitability and to enhance long-term sustainability of the cropping system in inland valley.
Seed production demands the progressive replacement of insecticides and fungicides with natural and easily degradable products. Biopolymers and coating technology can be combined to meet that goal.This study proposes chitosan, sodium alginate and Trichoderma harzianum formulations that can be applied to sunflower seeds, maintaining their quality and safe storage. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of coating with different chitosan and sodium alginate combinations on Trichoderma harzianum viability and sunflower seed quality. Sunflower seeds were coated with Trichoderma harzianum powder mixed with different biopolymer formulations (chitosan at 1% and 3%, sodium alginate at 1.5 %). Trichoderma viability was evaluated over time, through colonyforming units per ml. Sunflower seed quality was determined by, radicle emergence, germination percentage, root seedling growth and field emergence. Chitosan applied as seed coating had harmful effects on Trichoderma viability and sunflower seed quality. Instead, sodium alginate not only improved the adherence and survival of Trichoderma harzianum strains but also maintained the radicle emergence, root growth and germination levels. Sodium alginate creates a protective film for Trichoderma harzianum strains from chitosan damaging effect, ensuring adequate storage of sunflower seeds.
Seed production demands the progressive replacement of insecticides and fungicides with natural and easily degradable products. Biopolymers and coating technology can be combined to meet that goal. This study proposes chitosan, sodium alginate, and Trichoderma harzianum formulations that can be applied to sunflower seeds, maintaining their quality and safe storage. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of coating with different chitosan and sodium alginate combinations on Trichoderma harzianum viability and sunflower seed quality. Sunflower seeds were coated with Trichoderma harzianum powder mixed with different biopolymer formulations (chitosan at 1% and 3%, sodium alginate at 1.5 %). Trichoderma viability was evaluated over time, through colony-forming units per ml. Sunflower seed quality was determined by, radicle emergence, germination percentage, root seedling growth, and field emergence. Chitosan applied as seed coating had harmful effects on Trichoderma viability and sunflower seed quality. Instead, sodium alginate not only improved the adherence and survival of Trichoderma harzianum strains but also maintained the radicle emergence, root growth, and germination levels. Sodium alginate creates a protective film for Trichoderma harzianum strains from the chitosan damaging effect, ensuring adequate storage of sunflower seeds.
The purpose of this study is to address drought risk to cowpea farmers by identifying possible mixed lots of seed that spread risk. The method employed was a Poisson regression model using multi-year data for flowering time for 160 cowpea accessions. Two possible pairs of varieties for mixed seed release were identified, 1393-1-2-3(-) paired with Cameroon 12-58 and Sasaque paired with Tvu-9557. This study provides a new tool that can be used to predict the crop cycle for the lines and environments in the data set, which were in Pobe and Kamboinse, Burkina Faso. Further studies should consider consumer preferences, yield, disease resistance, and seed type.
Sclerotium rolfsii is a plant pathogen causing collar rot diseases in several plants including Chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.). An in-vitro experiment was conducted to study the potential of different isolates of Trichoderma spp collected from different agro-ecological regions of Nepal on inhibition of growth of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. in Plant pathology Laboratory of Agriculture and Forestry University, Nepal. The pathogenic isolate of S. rolfsii was isolated from symptomatic tomato and maintained in PDA. Several Trichoderma spp were isolated from soil of several locations using Trichoderma selective media (TSM) and maintained in PDA plates. The potential ability of Trichoderma isolates in controlling the pathogen was observed using dual culture and sclerotial parasitization techniques. Colony morphology and morphological features of sporulating structures of different isolates of Trichoderma spp were compared. Among all eight tested isolates, Trichoderma isolates isolated from Palpa district of Nepal gave maximum inhibition percent of S.rolfsii on 2(90.500%), 3(94.666%), 4(97.746%) and 5(100%) days after inoculation in dual culture. The average growth of mycelium of S. rolfsii on PDA plates treated with liquid culture filtrate (LCF) of Trichoderma was maximum in isolate isolated from Tarahara and minimum in Palpa isolate. Among eight sclerotia of S.rolfsii inoculated in PDA plates treated with LCF of different isolates of Trichoderma spp, minimum germination of sclerotia was obtained in the plates treated with Palpa isolate at 3 (25%), 5 (29.16%), 7 (29.16%) and 9 (29.16%) days after inoculation. Morphological variation of Trichoderma spp was observed even within the isolates of same sample and same location. Rampur isolates (collected from rice and vegetable farm) showed slightly lighter green color whereas Palpa isolate gave a darker green color than all other isolates.
The Mangrove Oyster, Crassostrea gasar is one of the most economically important shell mollusc in Nigeria. In the present study, investigations were made on the accumulation of seven (7) heavy metals, lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Iron (Fe), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) in water, sediment and Crassostrea gasar (flesh and shell) inhabiting Ebute – Oko, Tomaro, and Agala axis of the Lagos Lagoon. The analyses, conducted using standard method revealed lower heavy metal concentrations in the flesh of C. gasar during wet season while the concentrations in oyster shell, lagoon water and sediment were higher during dry season. Fe was recorded with the highest mean concentration in all the samples throughout the seasons. The lagoon sediments had the highest concentrations of all the metals in all the three sites examined. The bio-water accumulation factors showed that the oyster flesh accumulated all the seven heavy metals detected in the lagoon but in varying concentrations with Fe (> 20mg/l) as the highest while Cd (≤ 0.6mg/l) was recorded as the lowest accumulated heavy metals. The bio-sediment accumulation factors in the oyster flesh were less than 1 (< 1mg/l). The results of heavy metals concentrations obtained in this study were within the limit of FAO and WHO recommended for bivalves consumption, therefore, the oysters’ flesh was safe for consumption and can also serve as a good bio-indicator for pollution monitoring in our aquatic ecosystem.
The mineral composition of stored freeze dried cow milk cheese and soy cheese in selected packaging materials was investigated. 300g each of fresh cow milk and soy milk cheese was prepared and cut into sizes of 2x2cm dimension and a thickness of 0.2cm. The initial properties were determined using 50g each of the cheeses while the remaining 250g was freeze dried. The initial properties of the freeze dried samples were determined using a portion of each of the samples. A randomized experimental block design was adopted. The freeze dried samples were packaged in sterilized glass jar, plastic jar and polythene film while the unpackaged sample was used as the control sample. The samples were stored at ambient room conditions for 3 months. Samples were analyzed for mineral composition monthly during the storage period. Data obtained were analyzed statistically to determine the effect of the packaging materials and storage durations on the mineral composition of freeze dried cheese samples. Result of the mineral composition for the fresh cow milk and soy cheese for potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium, and sodium were 7.0±0.3, 5.22±0.11, 6.32±0.12, 11.12±0.40, 3.30±0.06 and 7.04±0.04, 5.14±0.14, 6.20±0.32, 10.76±0.60, 3.52±0.85 respectively while the result for the freeze dried cow milk and soy cheese before storage were 7.12±0.12, 5.20±0.40, 5.45±0.12, 15.85±0.03, 5.20±0.40 and 7.19±0.32, 5.10±0.60, 5.32±0.11, 13.40±0.35, 5.40±0.32 respectively. Results showed that statistically, there was no significant difference in the mineral composition of the stored cheese samples during the storage period (3 months). The packaging material type used and storage duration has no significant effect on the minerals of the cow milk and soy milk cheeses after 3 months of storage. This indicates that all the packaging material types used retain the mineral composition of freeze dried cheese.
The experiment to evaluate the effect of insecticide (chilli pepper aqueous extract) and fungicide (carbendazim 12% W.P. + Mancozeb 63% W.P.) combinations on the growth and yield of watermelon (citrullus lunatus) in Enugu area southeastern Nigeria was conducted during the 2016 cropping season. The research was carried out at the faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management Teaching and Research Farm of Enugu State University of Science and Technology Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria. The experimental design was 3x2 factorial in a randomized complete block (RCB) replicated three (3) times, using “crimson sweet” watermelon as a test crop. Parameters measured were days to 50% flowering, vine length (cm) number of fruits per plant, number of marketable fruits per plants, number of rotten fruits per plant and fruit yield (tonha‑1). The result of the experiment showed a significant (P = 0.05) interaction effect of insecticide (Chilli Pepper aqueous extract) and fungicide (Carbendazim 12% W.P. + Mancozeb 63% W.P.) combinations on all the parameters measured except on the number of fruits per plant.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology