The corrosion inhibition efficiency of expired Abarelix drug on the surface of the mild steel (MS) in 3 M HCl media was examined by weight loss, gasometric, atomic absorption spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and AC impedance techniques. Gravimetric (weight loss) results showed that, protection efficiency is directly related to the expired Abarelix drug concentration and inversely proportional to the immersion time. Adsorption of expired Abarelix drug species on the mild steel in acid media was confirmed by gasometric, and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. Further, the decrease in corrosion current density value with an increase in the amount of expired Abarelix drug is an indication of corrosion inhibiting action of the expired Abarelix drug on the metal surface in acid system. Nyquist plots clearly indicate the inhibition role of expired Abarelix drug on the metal surface. Surface (scanning electron microscopy [SEM]) technique also showed that, morphology observed in protected MS system is different from the unprotected system.
Uterine leiomyoma also known as fibroid is a medical problem of the female reproductive tract and prevalent among black women of child-bearing age. Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a popular food seasoning agent is an oestrogen disruptor but its intake has not been linked to fibroid. Fibroid has no known chemotherapy and hysterectomy leaves huge financial burden with side effects. It is necessary to determine its safer management method. This work investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) on uterus and kidney sections of rats with monosodium glutamate-induced leiomyoma. Twenty-eight rats were used. They were divided into four groups of seven rats each and acclimatized. Fibroid was induced on three groups after daily ingestion of 750mg/kg body weight of MSG for 28 days. Negative control had no fibroid. Positive control had fibroid but remained untreated. Groups III and IV also had fibroid. Groups III and IV were continuously ingested with the same dose of MSG for the next 28 days with daily oral treatment using 250mg/kg body weight aqueous extracts of turmeric and ginger, respectively. Histological examinations were performed on the 2nd and 4th weeks, respectively, on two rats from each group for the next 28 days. Results showed nephrotoxic effects of MSG with endometrial degeneration. Group III rats gave mild histological textures of their tissues compared with Group IV rats. MSG ingestion is nephrotoxic but the use of turmeric aqueous extract alleviated this effect and could be used in fibroid of management.
Nigerian oil and gas drilling operations are highly depended on the imported bentonite for use as drilling fluid. The importation drains the nation’s foreign reserve despite the fact that the country is equally blessed with huge deposit of this natural resource even though of inferior quality. This research characterized the Warsale montmorillonite clay from Dikwa formation. The clay was beneficiated (wet and dry) using Na2CO3 and the beneficiated drilling muds formulated. Drilling fluids formulated from the beneficiated clay did not possess the minimum rheological properties for use in oil and gas drilling operations. However, an improvement in rheological and filtration properties was observed when beneficiated with Na2CO3 and treated with CMC. The optimum values for plastic viscosity and gel strength were obtained at 6-10%wt Na2CO3 concentrations. The fluid loss of muds from Warsale bentonite was improved by about 50% when treated with Carboxy-Methyl-Cellulose (CMC) and meets the API requirements. The pH and sand content of the muds also fall within the API standards. The rheological and filtration properties of the local clay were found to be inferior to the reference Wyoming bentonite due to low concentrations of smectites and high levels of contaminants in the compositions of the local clays. However, this study shows that given the proper conditioning, beneficiated Warsale clay will give a good promise for drilling purposes at optimum sodium carbonate and additives concentrations.
The present study aims to evaluate the combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and cyanide exposure on liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Kidney functions (urea and creatinine) in rats. 16 male albino rats weighing between 100 and 150 g were utilized in the study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (n=4) as follows: Group 1 = Control; Group 2 = exposed to cadmium only (as cadmium chloride), Group 3 = exposed to cyanide only (as potassium cyanide); Group 4 = exposed to cyanide + cadmium .The exposure of the rats to the experimental treatment was done daily for 28 days. The serum liver enzymes, urea and creatinine were assayed using standard operating procedures (SOP). The results showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the levels of serum ALT, AST and ALP, Urea and creatinine in Group 2, 3 and 4 when compared with Group 1. However there was a significant decrease in AST and ALT activity in the rats in Group 4 when compared with Group 2 rats. In addition there was no significant difference in Urea and Creatinine activities among all the treated groups when comparing across the treated Groups. The result indicates that a combination of cyanide and cadmium is toxic to the liver and kidney of rats and could be deleterious to these organs, however, their combined effects was not synergistic.
The occurrence, virulence markers and antifungal susceptibility of vaginal yeast isolates from contraceptive users (CUs) and non-contraceptive users (NCUs) were determined using standard techniques. Five species of candida comprising C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis were isolated from the high vaginal swab (HVS) samples from CUs and NCUs. Cryptococcus neoformans was obtained only from HVS samples from CUs. There was no statistically significant difference (P ˃0.05) between the occurrences of yeast isolates among the CUs and NCUs. All HVS samples from the CUs aged < 20 yrs had isolates, while 80.0 %, 75.0 % and 60.0 % HVS samples from CUs with age groups of 21-25 yrs, 26-30 yrs and >31 yrs had yeast isolates, respectively. Among the NCUs, the highest and lowest occurrences of isolates were obtained from age group of 21-25 yrs and > 31 yrs, respectively. More than 62.5 % yeast isolates were sensitive to fluconazole, ≥ 32.5 % isolates were nystatin resistant, while between 50.0 % and 65.0 % isolates were sensitive to clotrimazole and itraconazole. C. neoformans and C. tropicalis displayed high sensitivity to clotrimazole and itraconazole, respectively. C. albicans (n=6), C. tropicalis (n=1) and C. glabrata (n=2) exhibited weak haemolytic activity, 50.0 % C. parapsilosis exhibited weak lipolytic activity, while C. albicans (n=9) and non-albicans Candida species (n=11) showed positivity for protease production. Though a large number of yeast isolates were sensitive to the antifungal drugs, intermittent antifungal susceptibility testings are necessary for monitoring trends of antifungal resistance among the pathogenic vaginal yeasts.
This paper reports the evaluation of heavy metal deposits and distribution in Challawa industrial area of Kano metropolis, using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results showed that lead (Pb), Cobalt (Co), Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe), were present in an increasing order. The comparatively high iron content in both incinerated tannery wastes, and contaminated soils has high implication on plant growth and therefore be of great concern to soil conservationist for agricultural purposes.
The effectiveness of cotton seed dextrose agar, groundnut seed dextrose agar and kernel dextrose agar in culturing fungi was studied by culturing fungi from yam rot (Dioscorea rotundata). The research demonstrated the choice of the isolated fungi to various media, and revealed that some of the isolated fungi showed the same occurrence in different media. Aspergillus flavus showed preference for kernel dextrose and groundnut seed dextrose agar than Sabouraud dextrose agar and cotton seed dextrose agar. Fusarium oxysporum showed preference to kernel and cotton seed dextrose agar. The occurrence of Rhizopus spp was only higher in Sabouraud and groundnut seed dextrose agar. In comparison of cultures, the cotton seed dextrose agar culture showed the highest growth of the fungi isolates (66.8±2.35%) while groundnut dextrose agar culture showed the least growth of the fungi isolates (49.8±2.35%). No significant difference in the growth of the fungi isolates was found between cultures (p>0.05). This research demonstrated that groundnut seed and cotton seed dextrose agar can be used to culture specific fungi of interest. Hence, they would provide suitable alternative media for culturing fungi of interest and reduce reliance on potatoes dextrose agar. The use of these media may provide promising interest in research where interest may be to identify, enumerate and characterize fungi.
Undergraduate medical training is considered the most important stage in medical education. The study was designed to determine whether medical students of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, Nigeria were satisfied with their training in Medicine. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. All medical students of the institution who have spent one full academic session in the university were included in the study. Information was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Three hundred and eighty five students participated in the study representing a response rate of 83.7%. The mean age of respondents was 23.2±3.4 years and majority, 64.2% were males. Majority, 62.6% were satisfied with quality of lecturing. A minor proportion, 19.5% were of the opinion that the university library was well equipped. Also, 27.3% opined that medical training obtained in the university matches international standards. Majority, 57.4% were satisfied with their training in Medicine. Predictors of satisfaction with medical training included being willing to study Medicine again, (AOR= 2.8, 95% CI: 1.8- 4.3) and having good interactions with lecturers during classes, (AOR= 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1- 3.4). Majority of the respondents were not satisfied with the state of infrastructure in the institution. Perhaps, this prompted the students to infer that their training does not meet international standard. However majority of the students were satisfied with their medical training. There is need to improve on the state of infrastructure/amenities in the medical school. A supportive academic staff especially during academic activities is invaluable in the training of medical doctors and should be encouraged.
High malaria burden has led to an increased use of insecticides in the tropical and subtropical regions. Pyrethroids chemicals, commercially available pesticides, are greatly in use these days, thereby resulting in an elevated production of free radicals in subjects which can result in oxidative damage. The influence of pyrethroids based insecticides on peripheral and bone marrow cells was investigated using adult wistar rats. A total of 36 Wistar rats were randomly selected for the study and divided into two groups, twenty one rats were exposed to 1.2%w/v pyrethroids insecticides and the remaining rats grouped as non-exposed. Each group was further subdivided into three groups as 7-days, 21-days and 42-days of exposure groups respectively. Afterwards, the peripheral blood cells, bone marrow cells and the level of biomarkers of oxidative stress were assessed. Data were statistically analysed and level of significance was set at p<0.05. The mean red cell indices were significantly increased in the 42-days pyrethroids exposure than the 7-days exposure group. There was also an increase in the levels of expression of catalase (CAT) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the exposed groups while superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed significant reduction. Exposure to pyrethroids insecticides caused significant alterations in the haematopoetic elements and the severity of this pathological effect correlated with the duration of exposure. Pyrethroids insecticides can therefore cause oxidative stress and inflammation as well as peripheral and bone marrow perturbation in rats when exposed to as few as 7 days.
Cloves ( Syzygium aromaticum L.) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtacae. Clove's essential oil is widely used as aromatherapy and for toothache treatment. Development of extraction technology that could increase oil yield from clove would thus significantly enhance the profitability of the clove's oil and reduce processing costs significantly. In this research work an essential oil was obtained from using Sohxlet and an ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods with n-hexane as extraction solvent. The oil extract was analyzed for its chemical composition using gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC-MS). The results of analysis show that the essentialoil yield were found to be 54.70% and 71.55% while the eugenyl acetatein extracts obtained were found to be 5.72% and 9.24% for sohxlet and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods respectively.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology