Featured Papers

March Edition, 2023 (Vol. 11 No. 1)

  • library_books

    MOLECULAR CHARACTERISATION OF MALARIA VECTORS IN IJEBU-NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Sulaimon A. Aina,*, Olusegun A. Lawal, Olufemi M. Agbolade, Titilola F. Salisu, Benjamin T. Thomas, Ismail B. Onajobi, Mistura T. Adeleke, Ahmed O. Olasupo, Ayoola T. Adeoye and Damilola R. Agarawu
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time1 January, 2024
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    Literature has confirmed the life-threatening vectoral nature of female Anopheles mosquitoes. Paucity of data on the composition of the species and diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes that transmit malaria disease in Ijebu-North Local Government Area (INLGA) of Nigeria necessitates this present study with the main objectives anchored on molecular diversity and entomological indices of malaria vectors. Six communities (Ojowo, Oke-Agbo, Oru- Ijebu, Awa-Ijebu, Oke-Igan and Ibipe) were randomly selected for the study with ten (10) apartments from each community. Mosquito samples were collected using Pyrethrum Spray Catch (PSC) method with modified exit trap on a monthly basis for a period of one year. The specimens were preserved and sorted through morphological identification using reference guides. Mosquitoes were characterised molecularly using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (PCR-RAPD) method. Molecularly, four species An. gambiae s.s., An. funestus s.s., An. arabiensis and An. leesoni were identified and which was better identification than the morphological approach. An. gambiae s.s. occurred most 90 (33.83%) followed by An. funestus s.s. 65 (24.44%), An. arabiensis 58 (21.8%) and An. leesoni with 53 (19.92%). In conclusion, this study is able to provide a long needed identification of Anopheles species that transmit malaria in Ijebu North which is intended to serve as background information for subsequent studies. However, periodic surveillance must be employed in order to update the malaria vector database, while government at all levels should improve funding for research on malaria vectors because of their persistent resistance to insecticides.

  • library_books

    ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT IN BREEDING AND MAINTENANCE OF LABORATORY MICE (Mus musculus)

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): *Salisu TF, Ademola JA, Adekunle ON, Adeleke MT, Oladunjoye RY, Aina SA, Owagboriaye FO, Agbolade OM.
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time16 December, 2023
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    Enrichment of environmental conditions of laboratory mice model in most in-vivo studies may be attributed to quantity and quality of data output. Despite reports on welfare of Mus musculus (albino mice), there is dearth of studies in comparing standard breeding of this specie in enriched group (EG) and Un-enriched group (UG). The study examined productivity by breeding Mus musculus under standard laboratory condition, using comparison of this specie in proper (enriched) versus poor (unenriched) condition. Six male and female mice (20 to 25g) were immaculately housed, fed, grouped into 2 (EG and UG) and bred using 2 phases of trio system (one male and two females) for 12 weeks (84 days). Results inferred production of more litters in EG (18/19) than UG, (12/14), respectively and more females' production than males in both groups for both phases. The number of cannibalised litters was more in UG (5 litters were cannibalised with 71.4 to 91.7 % survival rate) compared to EG (1 litter was cannibalised with 94.7 to 100% survival rate), during both phases. A significant (p < 0.05) difference was observed in volume of water consumed and average weight of mice in EG, when compared to UG. However, no significant (p > 0.05) difference observed in feed consumption of the two groups. The temperature readings (33.53±0.16 / 34.89 ±0.21) of clinical and mercury in glass thermometers of both groups revealed no significant difference. Thus, enriched group of laboratory mice appears to be more productive than un-enriched group during breeding period.

  • library_books

    ASSESSMENT OF BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH BAKING EQUIPMENT IN SELECTED BAKERIES IN AGO-IWOYE, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA.

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Egberongbe, HO, Onajobi, IB, Oyeyipo, FM, Balogun-Abiola, HT, Wahhab, KA, Odunsi, OM and Abesin, TM
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time16 December, 2023
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    Microbial contamination arising from the poor hygiene of bakery equipment can result in foodborne illnesses. This study was conducted to identify enteric bacteria associated with bread bakery equipment. Sterile swab sticks were used to collect samples from the surfaces of pre-baking and postbaking equipment, such as cutting machines, millers, mixers, scales, tables, and baking pans, from five bread bakeries in Ago-Iwoye. Pure cultures of isolates were tested for their cultural characteristics and biochemical properties to identify them. Pseudomonas spp., Klebsiella spp., Salmonella spp., and E.coli were identified as bacteria genera. Klebsiella spp. has the highest contamination frequency of 46.88%, followed by Pseudomonas spp. at 25%, Salmonella spp. at 18.75%, and Escherichia coli at 9.37%. To avoid food poisoning, strict hygiene practices should be followed when handling this equipment, and the production environment should be kept clean.

  • library_books

    EDGE DETECTION OF LITHOLOGICAL STRUCTURES USING ANALYTICAL SIGNAL TECHNIQUE ON GRAVITY DATA; A CASE OF GOMBE ARM OF BENUE TROUGH

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Ahmad Alhassan, Michael C. Ohakwere-Eze, Abdullahi Hussaini, Nasiru Bala, Okoro, John Kalu, and Salisu Tata
  • subjectCategory: Physical Sciences
  • access_time16 December, 2023
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    The boundaries between the different litho-structures in the Gombe arm of Benue trough were delineated by interpreting gravity data of the study area using the Analytical signal method. This helped to reveal the potentials in the area. The bouguer and analytical signal maps of the area were produced to show the distribution of the anomalies in the study area. The method displays the gravity anomalies of an area through the amplitudes of the directional analytic signals. The study area showed high anomalies in the northeastern part and southern part of the study area i.e. Dukku and Akko, which was attributed to the presence of metamorphic rocks which caused positive anomalies and sedimentary rocks in the areas which caused the negative anomalies.

June Edition, 2023 (Vol. 11 No. 2)

  • library_books

    PERCEPTIVE ASSESSMENT OF WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE AMENITIES IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE OWNED-SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BENIN METROPOLIS, SOUTHERN NIGERIA.

  • subjectCategory: Environmental Sciences
  • access_time28 December, 2023
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    The provision of safe water supplies and sanitation amenities in schools is a necessity in attaining a healthy learning setting. The aim of this study was to determine the perception of consenting students and teaching staff with respect to the state and availability of the water and sanitary facilities in four secondary schools located in Benin city. A pre-tested structured water, sanitation and hygiene status questionnaire was administered to 200 consenting respondents. Duplicate water samples were collected from the schools and pH and nitrate parameters were determined using relevant procedures. The mean pH and nitrate values for samples ranged from 4.71 + 0.1 - 5.35 + 0.2 and 1.13 + 0.2 mg/l - 2.41 + 0.1 mg/l, respectively (School A), 4.56 + 0.3 – 5.68 + 0.1 and 0.81 + 0.1 – 1.79 + 0.2mg/l respectively (School B), 6.22 + 0.4 – 7.57 + 0.1 and 1.27 + 0.2 – 1.56 + 0.2 mg/l respectively (School C) and 7.30 + 0.2 – 7.50 + 0.1 and 0.82 + 0.1 – 1.78 + 0.1 mg/l respectively (School D). The respondents (52.5%) opined the availability of separate toilets for both males and females with 47.5 % stating otherwise. A proportion of 52.5% respondent indicated the non-availability of dedicated personnel responsible for cleaning of the toilets while a lower number of participants (47.5%) opined otherwise. The respective school management should be financially empowered by the owners to employ dedicated personnel to maintain the toilet facilities in the schools and adequate provision of menstrual health management amenities in these institutions.

  • library_books

    EFFECT OF FERMENTATION TIME ON SOME ATTRIBUTES OF SORGHUM CHINCHIN

  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time28 December, 2023
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    Fermentation is a cheap method of food preservation and processing. Cereals can be fermented to provide commercially available snacks, meals, and alcoholic beverages. This research examined at how the length of the fermenting time affects some sorghum chinchin quality attributes (in hours). The sorghum grains were subjected to natural fermentation for 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 hours. They were then dried and processed into flour, and the dough was fried in oil to form Chinchin. Analyses of proximate composition, colour, texture profile, functional and sensory properties were carried out on the samples. The data obtained were further analyzed using ANOVA. Analysis of proximate composition showed an increase in the fat, crude fibre and crude protein contentsbuta decrease in the carbohydrate content as the fermentation period progresses; 19.12±0.01% to 19.44±0.02%, 3.27±0.01% to 4.4±0.00%, 3.85±0.01% to 4.19±0.01%, 64.48±0.01% to 61.05±0.01% respectively, while the values obtained from the control were 17.33±0.01%, 3.31±0.01%, 3.72±0.01%, 65.68±0.08% respectively. Oil uptake for the control sample was 18.64±0.69% and a decrease from 17.71±0.03% to 12.42±0.08% was noted for the fermented samples as the fermentation period increased. 36-hour fermented sample had the lowest value at 7.0±1.08, whereas the control samples and the 60-hour fermented sample had the highest overall acceptability. Implementing the consumption of snacks produced from 100% fermented sorghum as part of the diet can help prevent diet-related diseases and improve nutrition. Also, the commercial production of the snacks could provide additional socioeconomic benefits and increase the economic value of sorghum.

  • library_books

    ANTHROPOMETRIC STUDY OF CRANIOFACIAL DIMENSIONS IN SKELETONIZED SKULLS OF NIGERIAN ORIGIN

  • subjectCategory: Anatomy/Bioanthropology
  • access_time28 December, 2023
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    Anthropometric characteristics have direct relationship with sex, shape and form of an individual and these factors are intimately linked with each other and are manifestation of the internal structure and tissue components which in turn are influenced by environmental and genetic factors. The present work aimed to study the anthropometry of craniofacial parameters of skeletonized skulls of Nigerian origin and to verify the presence of sexual dimorphism among them. Using a spreading and a Vernier caliper craniofacial measurements were taken. The measurements include; Maximum cranial length (MCL), Maximum cranial breadth (MCB), Total cranial height (TCH), Anterior Facial height (AFH), Bizygomatic breadth (BB), Nasal height (NH) Nasal Width (NW), Orbital breadth and Orbital height. Cephalic Index (CI), Nasal Index (NI), Facial Index and Orbital Index (PI) weredetermined. Analysis of the mean values, standard error of mean, for the values of the craniofacial measurements were carried out using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 25 software for Microsoft® windows.The mean ± SD values craniofacial measurements of MCL,MCB, AFH, BB, NH, NW, TCH, OH, OB, NI, OI, CI and FI, for males were 19.24±1.01 , 14.16±166, 13.25±1.83, 11.40±0.90, 5.07±0.33, 2.75±0.43, 21.90±1.01, .67±0.25, 4.23±0.31, 54.67±10.19, 84.82±7.34, 72.5±7.26, 86.83±6.92 respectively; while the female values were 17.84±0.49, 14.20±0.19, 12.22±0.75, 10.78±1.21, 4.80±0.14, 2.56±0.20, 21.12±0.77, 3.44±0.14, 3.89±0.16, 53.44±4.55, 88.35±3.32, 79.64±2.25, 88.07±6.42 respectively Higher mean values were observed for male subjects in the following variables as compared to the female subjects except for the indices which females recorded higher values.The results from this study suggested the presence of statistically significant sexual dimorphism between the male and female variables in this study sample with males being significantly larger for all measurements. The parameter that showed the greatest level of sexual dimorphism is medial cranial length (MCL) with mean values of 19.24cm for males and 17.84cm for females.

  • library_books

    EXTRA-ARTICULAR MANIFESTATIONS IN ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS: A SINGLE CENTER ANALYSIS IN WESTERN ALGERIA

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time28 December, 2023
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    Our objective was to analyze and assess the extra-articular manifestations (EAMs) associated with the ankylosing spondylitis in Western Algeria. 292 patients diagnosed with AS at the level of rehabilitation department of Hassani Abdelkader Hospital of Sidi Bel Abbes region were enrolled. Studied parameters were: age, gender, disease duration, disease age onset, morning stiffness, joint involvements, laboratory data, disease activity, and treatments. All data were processed and analyzed via SPSS 22.0. One hundred and fifty (105) Algerian AS patients with extra-articular manifestations (EAMs) and 187 without EAMs were involved. The average disease duration was of 7.72 ± 4.970 and 6.55 ± 3.613 years in the EAMs and without EAMs groups, respectively. The group without EAMs suffered more from their lumbar (77%) and high inflammatory parameters (63.1% CRP positive), and most of them were smokers 20 (10.7%). However, EAMs patients' suffered the most from their joint (20% Vs 9.6 had knees affection and 41.9% Vs 25.7% had hips affection, respectively). High disease activity was more noted in EAMs group (52.4% VS 43.3%). Uveitis (AAU) and psoriasis (PsO) were the most common EAMs reported in AS patients and were significantly associated with radiological joint damage and duration morning stiffness p<0.05. In AS Algerian patients, uveitis was the most common reported EAMs with higher radiological joint damage, high inflammatory parameters and high disease activity score.

  • library_books

    LABORATORY EVALUATION OF TERMITICIDAL EFFICACY OF Cymbopogon citratus STAPF LEAF EXTRACT AGAINST TERMITES, Macrotermes bellicosus (BLATTODEA: TERMITIDAE) IN OBIO AKPA COMMUNITY, ORUK ANAM AKWA IBOM ST

  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time28 December, 2023
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    The study was conducted in the laboratory to determine the termiticidal efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract on Termites (Macrotermes bellicosus). The experiment consisted of five treatments with three replicates. The concentrations 2g, 4g, 6g, standard control {Rambo insect powder (0.60% Permethrin) and experimental control. Termites were collected from the Termitarium found within the Akwa Ibom State University, Obio Akpa campus. Fifty Macrotermes bellicosus were introduced into Petri dishes each containing the different levels of C. citratus extract, observations were made for 30minutes, 1hour, 1hour 30 minutes, 2hours,and 3hours respectively, to test for mortality, repellency and survival duration of Macrotermes bellicosus. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, steroids, saponins, glycosides, and citrals. Mortality test on Macrotermes bellicosus exposed to the different levels of treatments showed that mortality was extract concentration dependent. Maximum mortality was observed at standard control (insect powder),followed by the different concentrations of C. citratus extract during 3 hours exposure of termites to the extract as compared to experimental control where no mortality was recorded. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the number of termites that died at the different extract concentrations. The extract of C. citratus against Macrotermes bellicosus caused repellency in all the concentrations from 2g (65%), 4g (70%), 6g (85%) and standard control (100%). There was significant difference (p<0.05) in the movement of Macrotermes bellicosus from the extract baited filter paper at different concentration. Survival duration showed that all tested extract concentrations significantly (p< 0.05) reduced the survival duration of Macrotermes bellicosus. The study therefore, revealed the antitermitic activities of C. citratus which could be used as an alternative to synthetic insecticide for the control of Termites.

  • library_books

    DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF DIGITAL DUAL-SCALE MEASURING MACHINE USING MICROCONTROLLER

  • subjectCategory: Physical Sciences
  • access_time28 December, 2023
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    A digital dual-scale measuring machine was constructed consisting of two identical ring magnets coupled in repulsive configuration and a microcontroller. The two magnets in repulsive mode behaves as an elastic spring obeying Hooke's magnetic law provided the elastic limit of the magnets is not exceeded. The dual-scale machine with upper scale limits of mass 1.2 kg and extension 1.5 cm was used to measure assorted masses of objects and their corresponding extensions. Using the linear relation between mass and extension, the following magnetic quantities were determined: magnetic force constant 8244.3 N/m, push strength of the magnet 44.15 N, pole strength 588.22 Am, magnetic dipole moment 23.53 Am2, magnetization 138762.70 A/m, and remanence 0.1744 T. In addition, the product moment correlation coefficient between the actual mass and measured mass is 0.9926 and the cumulative power consumption of the constructed machine is 4.25 watts.

September Edition, 2023 (Vol. 11 No. 3)

  • library_books

    A NOVEL PROTOCOL FOR INDUCTION OF PRAZIQUANTEL RESISTANCE IN Schistosoma mansoni IN MICE

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time9 January, 2024
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    The control of Schistosoma mansoni infection by mass chemotherapy that is being attempted in the absence of effective drug regulation will ultimately create a major socio-economic and public health problem. The aim of the present study was to see how rapidly resistance to PZQ could be induced in S. mansoni, by giving sub-curative doses of the drug to mice infected with this parasite. Eighty mice, in eight groups of 10 mice each, were each infected with 150 S. mansoni cercariae, maintained until their parasites were adult worms, and then either left untreated (one group of negative controls) or given PZQ in various doses and regimens. Some treatments led to infections that were at least partially resistant to a normally effective treatment (i.e. a single dose of praziquantel at 40mg/kg). Three treatments at 8mg/kg produced infections that were more resistant to the drug than those produced using five doses at the same level (p<0.05). Given the current dependence on PZQ for the treatment of human schistosomiasis in endemic areas, including regions where drug control and regulation are poor, it is likely that S. mansoni isolates in the field will be subject to curative doses similar to those used in the present study. Therefore, careful surveillance to detect resistance to PZQ in the field is advocated.

  • library_books

    MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF A MUNICIPAL DUMPSITE AND IT'S ENVIRON IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA

  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time29 December, 2023
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    Indiscriminate waste discharge and improper management of waste disposal facilities remains Nigeria's biggest environmental concerns as it poses substantial risk to both public health and ecosystem. This study explored how waste dumpsite affects the environment and public health. Soil, leachate, borehole water and air samples collected from a dumpsite situated in Kosofe Local Government in Lagos State, Nigeria and its environs were microbiologically analyzed. Microbial isolation and enumeration utilized Nutrient, Eosin Methylene Blue, Salmonella Shigella agar and MacConkey agar. Bacterial characterization was done phenotypically using morphological and biochemical techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility employed Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion Soil had the highest bacteria count (3.0×107 CFU/g), followed by leachate (1.48x107 CFU/ml), and borehole water (5.2x106 CFU/ml), while air had the least bacterial count (4.0x106 CFU/m3). Thirty two bacterial species belonging to seven genera were isolated and identified. Bacillus spp. occurred in all samples asides water, while Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were found in leachate and borehole water. Antibiotic resistance profile revealed that all the isolates were susceptible to gentamicin and ofloxacin while 38% were resistant to amoxicillin and 56% of the isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone. Individuals living in close proximity to dumpsites are at high risk of infections caused by bacterial pathogens. This calls for an urgent regulatory system on proper waste disposal in that area.

  • library_books

    IDENTIFICATION AND PREVALENCE OF TAENIA SOLIUM EGGS IN FAECES OF PIGS IN WUKARI, SOUTHERN TARABA, NIGERIA

  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time29 December, 2023
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    This study was carried out to identify T. solium eggs in feacal droppings of one hundred (100) unrestrained pigs in different sampling areas of WapanNghaku and Mission Quarters in Wukari, Southern Taraba State, Nigeria, using the formol-ether-sedimentation and direct wet mount techniques. Taenia solium (T. solium), also known as pork tapeworm, is a segmented intestinal parasite of humans and pigs that is endemic in many developing countries. The prevalence of eggs in both diagnostic methods was compared using percentages. The prevalence of T. solium eggs using the formol-ether-sedimentation and direct wet mount technique was 48% and 32% respectively. In both diagnostic isolation methods, the rate was highest in the WapanNghaku (formol-ethersedimentation: 56%; direct wet mount: 40%) than in the Mission Quarters areas (formol-ethersedimentation: 40%; direct wet mount: 20%). This study which describes for the first time, the study on T. solium in nomadic pigs and techniques to identify their eggs in faeces and determine their prevalences in Wukari, has improved data on the epidemiology of T. solium by showing that nomadic pig farming in Wukari predisposes transmission of taeniasis in the study population of pigs that serve as reservoirs of T. solium eggs. Furthermore, these eggs can be isolated with more accuracy using the formol-ether-sedimentation technique which is simple. Whilst a robust surveillance data is advocated, there is need to adopt a quality intensive system of pig management to maintain good hygienic environment and disease free pork for consumption in the study areas.

  • library_books

    MICROCONTROLLER-BASED TEMPERATURE AND FACE DETECTION SYSTEM FOR UNIVERSITY LABORATORY CONTROL AND MONITORING

  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time29 December, 2023
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    Efficient and reliable university laboratory management requires precise monitoring and control of environmental conditions such as temperature, occupancy, and equipment use. However, traditional monitoring methods such as manual measurements can be time-consuming, labor-intensive, and prone to error. Additionally, there is often a need for remote monitoring and control, especially in large facilities or during off-hours. To address these challenges, this paper presents the design and implementation of a comprehensive monitoring and control system for a university laboratory. The system employs an Espressif 32 (ESP32) microcontroller board and various sensors to automate temperature, occupancy, and equipment monitoring. Temperature readings of people entering and leaving the university laboratory are taken to ensure safety during a pandemic. Face detection is used to monitor the number of people entering and exiting the laboratory and to authenticate individuals entering. An ESP32 microcontroller performs commands using a relay switch after password-based authentication through SMS. Furthermore, the system can be remotely controlled via SMS through a GSM network, providing an effective way to manage university laboratory conditions from a distance. The system's accuracy was evaluated by comparing temperature readings with those of a reference thermometer and testing face detection and relay control functions. The results of the tests demonstrate that the system is reliable and accurate in monitoring and controlling the university laboratory environment. Overall, this system provides an efficient and effective solution for university laboratory management, reducing the need for manual monitoring and improving the accuracy of environmental data collection.

  • library_books

    CULTURAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND GENOMIC STUDIES OF STARTER CULTURES IN FERMENTED SOYBEAN CURD PRODUCTION

  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time29 December, 2023
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    Soybean is an excellent and cost-effective protein source. However, its usage is limited by antinutrients. Soybean curd commonly called 'awara' in Nigeria or 'tofu' in Asia is a processed cuisine that is consumed in many countries. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) that are mostly used as starter cultures in fermentation processes and have been associated with many health benefits were isolated from fresh cow milk collected from three sample areas of Nwosen, Komoto and Zaria in Rugga, a Fulani community in Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria. A total of seven strains were isolated from the fresh cow milk post biochemical tests. Two strains with good starter culture properties were used in fermenting the soybean curds and molecularly identified thereafter. One of the strains was confirmed to be LAB (Lactococcus lactis) and the other was AAB (Acetobacter tropicalis). After forty-eight hours of fermentation, L. lactis and A. tropicalis were able to increase the protein content from 30.6% to 45.7% and 30.6% to 42.3% respectively. Decreases in anti-nutrient contents of the samples were also observed. The difference in these values proves that these L. lactis was the best starter that increased the nutrient and decreased the anti-nutrients via extended hours of fermentation thus making it the most preferred starter culture in fermentation of soybean curd.

  • library_books

    GROWTH RESPONSE, CARCASS AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF BROILER BIRDS FED SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS LEAF MEAL

  • subjectCategory: Agricultural Sciences
  • access_time29 December, 2023
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    One hundred and twenty (120) apparently healthy day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks, were used in a study to evaluate the effects of substitution of antibiotics with selected medicinal plant leaf meal on their production indices. The study which was carried out from September to November 2022 consists of eight treatment groups designated as T to T . Eight experimental diets were formulated such that T served as the control, T 1 8 1 2 (5% Moringa oleifera leaf meal), T (5% Neem leaf meal) T (5% Spondias mombin leaf meal), T (2.5% 3 4 5 combination each of moringa and Neem leaf meal), T (2.5% combination each of Moringa and Spondias 6 mombin leaf meal) T (2.5% combination each of Neem and Spondias mombin leaf meal), and T (1.66% each 7 8 of Moringa, Neem and Spondias mombin leaf meal) respectively. Parameters evaluated for the broiler chicken include weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, haematology and carcass characteristics of the broilers. The study lasted for 63 days. Data collected were subjected to a one-way analysis of variance using SPSS,22. Mean separation was done using the least significant difference. The weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio as well percentage mortality for the broiler chicken all differed (P<0.05). The broiler chicken dressed weight, dressing percentage, breast cut, thigh, drumstick, shank and wing were significant (P<0.05) higher for T . The organs of the broiler chicken such as gizzard, crops, 4 proventriculus, small intestine, large intestine and caecum were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the feeding trial. The WBC, Hb and the platelet of the broiler chicken were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the study materials. The work therefore recommends that medicinal plant leaf meal can be used in place of antibiotics growth promoters as they positively affected the broiler growth performance.

  • library_books

    ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT DERIVED FROM voacanga africana

  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time29 December, 2023
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    The antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Voacanga africana was evaluated using standard methods. The phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity were also assessed using routine procedures. Dried and pulverized leaves of V. africana were extracted with ethanol.The result of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of some bioactive compounds; tannins, flavonoids, phenols anthraquinones, saponins, phlobatanins, cardiac glycosides and terpenoids. The crude leaf extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity at concentrations of 250mg/ml-500mg/ml with a growth inhibitory zone of 1-6 mm for Klebsiella sp, 3-11mm for Staphylococcus sp, 9-13mm for Escherichia coli and 11-14mm for Pseudomonas sp. For the fungal isolates, the extract elicited a zone of inhibition of 6-11mm for Penicillium sp, 11-20 for Aspergillus sp. and 6-10 for Fusarium sp. The ethanolic leaf extract of Voacanga africana showed significant antioxidant activity using the DPPH test. These findings suggested that the ethanolic leaf extract of V. africana has potent antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.

  • library_books

    EFFECTS OF NITROGEN RATES AND PRECEDING CROPS ON THE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF UPLAND RICE IN INLAND VALLEY

  • subjectCategory: Agricultural Sciences
  • access_time29 December, 2023
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of upland rice and lowland preceding varieties, and N fertilization on growth and productivity upland rice grown the same year in two locations in the inland valley of Nigeria. The experiment was split plot design with two preceding lowland rice varieties (Jasmine and Funaabor-2) as main plots and five levels of N (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1) for the succeeding upland rice as split plot treatments with 3 replications. Results showed that upland rice grown after FUNAABOR-2 variety gave significant (p < 0.05) number of leaves, chlorophyll content, number of tillers, dry matter, panicle per m2, panicle weight and grain yield than Jasmine variety was the preceding crop. Rice grown after Funaabor-2 exhibited 54% grain yield increments compared to growing Jasmine in Igbogila. The effects of preceding lowland rice varieties on the yield components and grain yield of upland rice was pronounced more in Alabata (671 kg ha-1) than Igbogila (1077 kg ha-1). Similarly, linear responses to N application from 0-120 kg ha-1 were observed on the growth and yield components of rice in both locations. Thus, Cultivation of Funaabor-2 and increasing the rate of N application from 90 to 120 kg ha-1 is recommended to boost rice growth and yield, increase profitability and to enhance long-term sustainability of the cropping system in inland valley.

December Edition, 2023 (Vol. 11 No. 4)

  • library_books

    HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS ESTIMATION IN CIGARETTE AND NON-CIGARETTE SMOKERS IN IBEJU/LEKKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE

  • subjectCategory: Medical Laboratory Sciences
  • access_time15 February, 2024
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    Cigarette smoking is one of the major leading causes of death throughout the world, it has both acute and chronic effects on haematological parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the haematological parameters in cigarette and non-cigarette smokers. About 150 subjects were recruited for this study, of which 100 were cigarette smokers, while 50 were non-cigarette smokers. Questionnaire was administered before Blood samples were collected from each of the cigarette and non-cigarette smokers. The cigarette smokers were regularly consuming at least 4 sticks of cigarette daily for at least 5 years. Complete blood cell count was analyzed with the use of an automatic haematological analyzer. There was no statistically significant difference in age between the two groups (p=0.1). Haemoglobin (Hb) (p<0.001), haematocrit (HCT) (p<0.001) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) (p=0.002) values were statistically significantly higher in cigarette smokers (test group) than in non-cigarette smokers (control group). Vice versa, RDW was lower in cigarette smokers than in non-cigarette smokers (p=0.001). Leukocyte (p<0.001), neutrophil (p=0.001) and lymphocyte counts (p=0.04) were statistically higher among cigarette smokers compared to non-cigarettes smokers. There was no statistical significant difference in parameters of platelet indices between the 2 groups. From the present study, we can conclude that continuous cigarette smoking increases erythrocyte, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, leukocyte count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and these alterations might be associated with a greater risk for developing several diseases.

  • library_books

    HAEMATOLOGICAL EFFECT OF ANTHOCLESTA NOBILIS ON POTASSIUM BROMATE-INTOXICATED RATS

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time15 February, 2024
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    Potassium bromate used widely in foods has been associated with various complications and much attention has been drawn to the toxic effect of bromate on the organs like liver, kidney etc. In this study, the effect of the ethanol extract of Anthocleista nobilis leaves on kidney and liver damages induced by exposure to an acute dose of potassium bromate was measured using appropriate biomarkers. Anthocleista nobilis, known commonly as Okpokoro, is extensively used in traditional medicine to treat many disorders. Potassium bromate was induced through oral administration followed by oral administration of ethanol extract of Anthoclesta nobilis at doses 200mg/kg body weight, 400mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks, while the control group received distilled water and the positive control group received the ascorbic acid and distilled water. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed, body weight, relative organ weight, the parameters of the lipid. Treatment with ethanol extract of Anthoclesta nobilis at doses of 200mg/kg body weight, 400mg/kg body weight and 800mg/kg body weight showed significant increase of the body weight in treated groups. Result shows a significant increase in RBC, PCV, Hb and a significant decrease in WBC and PLT. Result also showed a significant decrease in urea uric acid, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chlorine and bicarbonate at (p<0.05). This study revealed that Anthoclesta nobilis was efficient in reducing and management of potassium bromated induced systemic toxicity and be a potential source of control for oxidative stress caused some environmental oxidants.

  • library_books

    COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LIQUORS OBTAINED FROM ENZYME AND ACID HYDROLYSES OF RICE MALT THROUGH INFUSION MASHING TECHNIQUE

  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time15 February, 2024
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    The main challenges associated with enzymatic hydrolysis are slow reaction rates, high enzyme costs and poor understanding of enzyme kinetics on malt substrates. Hence, this study was carried out to comparably analyse liquor obtained from enzyme and acid hydrolyses of rice malt using infusion mashing technique. Two conical flask containing fifty grams (50g) of rice grists each were hydrolyzed using enzymes (amyloglucosidase, -amylase, -amylase and proteinase) and dilute acid (H SO ), respectively. After mashing, the resulting worts were analysed for their physicochemical properties. The worts were boiled with isomerised hop extracts, followed by cooling with subsequent pitching with yeast prior to primary fermentation which lasted for 5 days. The green beers were analysed for their physicochemical properties. The result showed that enzyme and acid hydrolyzed rice worts had original gravity of 1.031 and 1.019o, sugar of 7.8 and 4.83oBrix, pH of 5.2 and 2.9, viscosity of 1.94 and 2.6cp with adequate amounts of reducing sugars (glucose and maltose). The result of liquor analysis after primary fermentation gave specific gravity (1.006 and 1.0130ñ), sugar (1.54 and 3.32oBrix) pH (4.2 and 3.1), %alcohol (3.27 and 1.69%v/v) and apparent fermentability (80.64 and 18.75%). The work indicates that enzyme hydrolysis is preferred as it adequately and effectively converts more starch to fermentable sugars than in acid hydrolysis.

  • library_books

    ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF Ocimum gratissimum EXTRACT ON MALE ALBINO WISTAR RAT INFECTED WITH Plasmodium berghei

  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time15 February, 2024
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    Antioxidant effect of the ethanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimium was investigated on the male Wistar albino rats infected with Ocimum gratissimium. Twenty-five (25) male albino Wistar rats were divided into five groups at random: the normal control group (rats that were neither infected nor treated), the negative control group (rats that were infected but not treated), the low-dose group (rats that were infected but treated with the extract at 2.5 mg/kg), the medium-dose group (rats that were parasitized and treated with extract at 5.0 mg/kg), and the high dose group (rats that were infected and treated at 7.5mg/kg). The antioxidant parameters such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde) were measured in the serum after 14 days of therapy in the experimental rats. The findings showed that the negative control group's activities of the enzyme's superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione were significantly lower than those of the normal control and treated groups (p<0.05). However, upon the administration of Ocimum gratissimium the parameters enzymes activities of the infected and treated groups significantly increased (p<0.05). This effect affirmed that the extract has antioxidative properties that reversed oxidative potentials caused by Plasmodium berghei infection.

  • library_books

    EFFECTS OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF RHIZOMES OF Zingiber Officinale (GINGER) ON SOME METABOLIC SYNDROME INDICES OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS FED HIGH-FAT HIGH-SUCROSE DIET

  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time15 February, 2024
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    Zingiber officinale rhizome, known commonly as ginger, is extensively used in traditional system of medicine in many countries for the treatment of various disorders. The study was aimed at determining the effects of the ethanol extract of the rhizomes of Z. officinale on some metabolic syndrome indices in albino Wistar rats fed high-fat high-sucrose diet. The design consisted of 6 groups. Group 1 received standard feed(vital finisher's mash) and distilled water, group 2 received high-fat high-sucrose diet only, group 3 received high-fat high-sucrose diet + metformin, groups 4,5 and 6 received high-fat high-sucrose diet + ethanol extract of rhizomes of Zingiber Officinale (200, 400 and 800mg/kg body weight respectively). The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats of different groups were sacrificed; the parameters of lipid profile(Total cholesterol, HDL-C, TAG, LDL-C and VLDL-C), antioxidant status SOD and catalase activities as well as GSH and MDA concentrations) and using standard methods. Administration with the ethanol extract of Z. officinale rhizomes at doses of 200, 400 and 800mg/kg body weight showed significant reduction of body weight in treated groups, improved lipid profile and HDLcholesterol levels in the rats of the treated groups compared to the rats in the group fed high-fat high-sucrose diet alone. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and improvement of GSH, GPx, SOD, MDA and catalase activity were also observed in the rats of the treated groups. In conclusion, this study reveals that the ethanol extract of the rhizome of Z. officinale improved the indices of metabolic syndrome and therefore, justifies its use in the amelioration of metabolic syndrome.

  • library_books

    DIFFERENTLY PROCESSED BAMBARA GROUNDNUT (Vigna subterrenean)SEED MEAL COULD INFLUENCE THE HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE OF GROWER RABBITS

  • subjectCategory: Agricultural Sciences
  • access_time15 February, 2024
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    This study was carried out to evaluate how differently processed Bambara nut (Vigna subterrenean) seed meal could influence the haematological characteristics of grower rabbits for a period of eight weeks. Twenty grower rabbits aged 10 to 12 weeks were used for this study. The rabbits were raised intensively and were provided with feed and clean drinking water. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 25% RBSM, SBSM, CBSM and TBSM and coded as T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. The four treatment groups were assigned to the four experimental diets in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Each treatment was replicated five times with one (1) rabbit per replicate. Blood samples were collected from each replicate for haematological analysis. The experimental data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) in a completely randomized design, using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16. There were (P<0.05) significant differences among treatment groups for all the haernatological parameters evaluated. RBC results obtained were 45.55%, 32.28%, 47.58% and 33.59% for T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. WBC were 8.739x10, 4.659x 10, 7.909x10, and 7.119 x 10 /l for T , T , T and 9 1 2 3T diets respectively. From the findings of this study, soaked Bambara nut seed meal at 25% is non-toxic and can support and maintain a good health status of grower rabbits.

  • library_books

    HOW KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES AFFECTS LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS IN PARTS OF OSE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ONDO STATE NIGERIA

  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time15 February, 2024
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    The level of knowledge possessed by community members determines the role it plays in preventing Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) within the population. Our cross-sectional study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) across three communities located in Ose Local Government Area (LGA) Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria. Close-ended structured questionnaires on KAP towards LF were administered to 1,090 consented respondents who were between the ages of 15 and 80 with their responses graded and scored accordingly. Results were presented using descriptive statistics. Results revealed respondents' knowledge on LF was poor as only 7(4%) had correct knowledge on LF. However, 757(69.5%) and 147(13.9%) of the respondents admitted that LF patients could be non-productive and could marry an LF-chronic manifested person respectively. In relation to practices towards LF, 594(54%) of the respondents receiving drugs that had been distributed for preventive chemotherapy. Further analysis showed that although the ownership of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) was high with 862 (72%) respondents being in possession of LLINs, its utilization was low with only267 (25%) sleeping under an LLIN. In conclusion, the poor knowledge on LF could have contributed to the presence of LF in the study area. Continuous efforts by educating community members in the need to fight against LF should be embarked on by the health stakeholders.

  • library_books

    ANTIDEPRESSANT AND ANXIOLYTIC EFFECTS OF Tetracarpidium conophorum SEEDS IN SWISS MICE

  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time15 February, 2024
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    Naturally, herbs are the principal constituent of herbal or traditional medicine used in managing and treating diverse sicknesses and diseases globally. Tetracarpidiumconophorum belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae and is traditionally used as a nerve tonic, amongst other conditions. This study examined the antidepressant and anxiolytic properties of the aqueous extract of T. conophorum seed. The antidepressant and anxiolytic indexes at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of T. conophorum extract and standard drugs (30 mg/kg of Amitriptyline and 2 mg/kg of diazepam) were assessed in an animal model using the force swimming, tail suspension and hole board tests. The animals (mice) were randomly placed in five groups of three animals each (n=5). The extract expressed a significant decrease in the immobility time (reduced depression) in the forced swim and tail suspension tests compared to distilled water (negative control). The head-dip frequency was significantly reduced (slightest display of anxiety) in the hole board test for anxiety. The 25 and 50 mg/kg of T. conophorum extract presented the best impacts against depression and anxiety. In conclusion, the study affirms the capacity of T. Conophorum extract to manage depression and anxiety. The probable mode(s) of action of T. Conophorum extract as an antidepressant and an anti-anxiety agent is recommended for future studies.

  • library_books

    SOLVENT CHOICE, PHENOLIC QUANTIFICATION AND INVIVO POTENTIAL OF phyllanthus amarus WHOLE PLANT PHENOL RICH CONCENTRATE

  • subjectCategory: Biochemistry/Molecular Biology
  • access_time15 February, 2024
  • keyboard_arrow_downRead Abstract

    The traditional method of preparing herbal decoctions has been known for ages without certainty if the most efficacious phenolic bio-molecules of medicinal plants e.g. Phyllanthus amarus (Schum and Thonn) are being exploited. More so, high salt diet (HSD) intake has been established worldwide, to deleteriously induce hyperlipidemia-related hypertensive rubor, renal subjugation and adipocyte proliferation. The present study was to validate the best extraction method that would greatly tap the Phyllanthus amarus (Schum and Thonn) whole plant phenolic phytoconstituent and also evaluate its in-vivo role in the amelioration of high salt meal triggered hyperlipidemia, adiposity, and renal dysfunction in an animal model, within 8 weeks. Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rodents (170-180g) were grouped, and treated as follows: Group1: fed with normal rat chow; Group 2: HSD; Group 3: HSD+75mg/kg/b.wt of PRE; Group 4: HSD+100mg/kg/b.wt of PRE; Group 5: HSD+150mg/kg/b.wt of PRE. Results showed that aqueous acetone concentrates exhibited the highest 2, 2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (result not shown), and also with the highest content of total phenolics. The in-vivo results further revealed significant (p < 0.05) histopathological alterations in the renal architecture of group 2 fed high salt chow only, increased kidney weight, lipid profile, body fat deposit(54.5%) andconcentration of renal bio-products. It also established a significant dose-dependent recuperating potential in the groups co-treated with PRE when compared with rats on normal chow. The aqueous acetone solvent exhibited the best extraction medium for PRE and may thus be considered as an imminent therapeutic agent in managing high salt-driven Hyperlipidemia, Adiposity and Renal dysfunction.

ER-Journal is now indexed in:
AFRICAN INDEX MEDICUS (WHO)
Cab Abstracts