Philippines has rich floral biodiversity accompanied by an abundant source of medicinal plants easily accessible in the locality. In terms of ethnomedical properties, Chrysophyllum cainito has been used to treat various diseases. In this study, C. cainito leaves were collected and evaluated for cytotoxicity using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay. The C. cainito leaves were extracted with water, 50:50 ethanol-water, and absolute ethanol to produce the decoction, hydro-ethanolic, and ethanolic extracts respectively. Four concentrations (10, 100, 500, 1000 μg/ml) of the extracts were prepared and tested. The mortality rates of the brine shrimp were observed after 6 and 24 hours. The results showed that all the prepared extracts exhibited active biological activities with the ethanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts exhibiting greater activities compared to the decoction. The ethanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts showed toxicity effects after 24-h exposures with LC values of 25.85μg/ml and 84.14μg/ml respectively. The results indicate that the use of absolute ethanol and 50:50 ethanol-water may have successfully extracted the bioactive compounds in the C. cainito that have acted on the brine shrimp. The presence of active components in the extracts indicated the potential of C. cainito as alternative medicine and hence requires further tests to qualitatively identify the bioactive compounds.
Cigarette smoking is the practice of burning cigarettes and inhaling the smoke that comes from them. Cigarette smoke elicits carcinogenic effects on the tissues of the body that are exposed to it. The aim of carrying out this study was to evaluate the buccal mucosa smears of active and passive cigarette smokers in Owo Town, Ondo State, Nigeria. About 150 subjects were recruited for this study, of which100 were active cigarette smokers while 50 were passive cigarette smokers. Active cigarette smokers that have not been smoking daily for at least 5 years were not included for this study and passive cigarette smokers who have smoked cigarette or any other type of tobacco products before were not included for this study. The subjects for both active cigarette smokers and passive cigarette smokers were given a questionnaire to fill; clean water was given to them to rinse their mouth before samples were collected from their buccal cavities with the use of a sterile spatula. Samples collected were immediately smeared on a clean frosted end slide, fixed in 95% alcohol, and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin and Papanicolaou stain. This study revealed that the prevalence of male involved in cigarette smoking is higher than that of females and there is a higher prevalence of youths actively involved in cigarette smoking in Owo town, Ondo state. The stained buccal smears of passive cigarette smokers revealed normal squamous epithelial cells with some smears showing scanty inflammatory cells. The stained buccal smears of active cigarette smokers revealed heavy infiltrates of inflammatory cells, increased nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, hyperchromatic cells, and squamous epithelial cells looking glycogenated with tiny spherical bodies on the cytoplasm suggestive of fungi infection. Cigarette smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral mucosal lesions majorly among active cigarette smokers.
Determination of sex and living stature are key components of the biological profile for the personal identification of individuals. There is limited literature describing such investigation among adult Nigerians. The present study was carried out to develop regression models to estimate living stature and reliably predict sex from percutaneous anthropometric dimensions of the hand in a contemporary adult Nigerian population in Lagos. To derive the regression models, a total of nine (9) anthropometric measurements were recorded for two hundred and twenty-two (222) adult Nigerians (Male 115, Females 107) ranging from 18-65 years of age among them were staff and students of College of Medicine of the University of Lagos and Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba. The direct measurements taken were Hand length, Palm length, Hand breathes, Wrist width, and Digit lengths which included thumb, index, middle, ring, and little fingers. The result of this present study recorded a significant relationship between gender and stature determination using hand dimensions (p<0.001) as males recorded a mean of 176.49±7.4cm and female recorded a mean of 166.36±7.1cm. Together with stature, every other parameter showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between males and females. Results for correlation between hand parameters and stature were statistically significant (p<0.01) as different variables showed different degrees and strength of association ranging between 0.411 to 0.625 for left hand and 0.467 to 0.587 for right-hand measurements. The weakest correlations were observed in thumb length, little finger, and wrist width respectively on the right hand while thumb length and wrist width showed the weakest correlation on the left hand. Regression formulae for reconstructing stature were developed for each of these parameters through simple and multiple linear regressions for stature and logistic regression models were generated for sex estimation with a sectioning point at 0.5. Hand dimensions can be used in Sex and stature determination in medico-legal cases if the need arises. These derived equations, thus, provided a new tool for standard in forensic science in medico-legal practice.
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element needed for normal development and physiological processes in the body. However, chronic exposures or consumption of Mn can cause neurotoxicity in humans to affect balance and motor coordination. Quercetin is a polyphenolic flavonoid contained in some fruits and its association with the management of motor neurodegenerative disorders is yet to be fully understood. Hence, this is present study is aimed at investigating the efficacy of Quercetin on manganese-induced cerebellar damage of adult mice. Forty (40) healthy BALB/c male mice weighing between 20-25grandomly selected into five groups were used for the study. Behavioral, histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses were carried to validate our hypothesis that Quercetin is neuroprotective. Manganese exposed mice exhibited increased latency of turn (LOT) when compared to the control group in parallel bar test. There was a significant decrease in the LOT in all groups that received Quercetin when compared with the manganese exposed group. Also, when using the grip strength test, manganese exposed mice exhibited decreased grip strength when compared to the control group and a significant increase in Quercetin grip strength when compared with manganese exposed group. Histological results also revealed that there were little or no disrupted neurons in the granular, molecular and purkinje layer of the cerebellum. Immunohistochemical results also showed that the normal control and Quercetin-treated mice showed no expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) when compared to the manganese-exposed mice with shrunken morphology. Markers of oxidative stress were significantly different in the experimental animals when compared to the control and Quercetin treated mice. This study, therefore, revealed that Quercetin may have an antioxidant effect on the oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in the cerebellum thereby ameliorating the exhibited abnormal motor coordination caused by prolonged exposure to manganese.
This study was carried out to assess the main secondary metabolites contents and antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydro-ethanolic extract of Calycotome Spinosa plant using either conventional (maceration, reflux, and Soxhlet) and unconventional (Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE)) methods. The highest extract yields were recorded for MAE methods in both water (18.15%) and ethanol extraction (21.37%) respectively. MAE method showed the highest rate of total phenolic compounds TPC (168.24±0.79 and 182.60±1.29 mg CE/g DR) and total flavonoids (16.38±1.17 and 28.94 ±0.67 mg CE/g DR) contents in both water and hydro-ethanol extracts respectively. While, the highest tannin content was recorded for maceration and MAE methods (18.90±2.82 and 23.01±2.20 mg CE/g DR) in aqueous and hydro-ethanolic extracts respectively. MAE method exhibited a significant ability to scavenge DPPH radical (IC50= 0.51 ± 0.39, and 0.34 ±0.48 mg/mL) in both water and hydro-ethanol respectively. We conclude that MAE was more effective as an extraction method for C. Spinosa plant which allows a good extraction yield with a high rate of secondary metabolite and a high antioxidant activity.
Intake of chemicals like monosodium glutamate (MSG), mostly used as a food seasoning, enhance the prevalence of leiomyoma. Leiomyoma has no known cure but Spondias mombin leaves have been in use, locally, in its management among Igbos of South-Eastern Nigeria. This work investigated the effect of S. mombin extract on hepatocytes after ingesting MSG. Twenty-one rats used in this study were divided into three groups of seven rats each and acclimatized. Two groups had fibroid after daily ingestion of 750mg/kg body weight of MSG for 28 days. Negative control had no fibroid. Positive control had fibroid and remained untreated. Group III, with fibroid, were continuously fed with the same dose of MSG for the next 28 days in addition to daily oral treatment with 250mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of Spondias mombin. Histological examinations of rat’s hepatocytes were performed on 2ndand 4thweeks, respectively, using two rats from each group for the next 28 days. Results indicated that the aqueous extract of S. mombin did not preserve the rat’s hepatocytes. Ingestion of S. mombin aqueous extract is deleterious to hepatocytes and could lead to other liver diseases. Results further indicated that continuous ingestion of MSG is destructive to hepatocytes. Care should be applied while ingesting an aqueous extract of S. mombin either as prophylaxis or as a chemotherapeutic agent. The result of this study had shown that oral intake of MSG has the potential of inducing uterine leiomyoma in experimental albino Wistar rats.
Patients with psychosis are often mistaken for cerebral malaria, and hence continue to be poorly treated. This work is aimed to highlight the features of cerebral malaria and psychosis so that distinctions and proper treatment are obtained. It was a case of 28 years old woman with 4th episode of mental illness characterized by strange voices gossiping about her, poor hygiene, belief of being monitored through her phone, accusing the mother-in-law of witchcraft, and refusing food cooked in the house because it was poisoned. Four days before presentation, she smashed their television because they were discussing her childlessness. She was not feverish, not a known epileptic, diabetic or hypertensive, and no psychoactive substance use. Previous episodes of this illness were treated in a peripheral hospital as typhoid fever and malaria without significant change in her condition until she presented to us where she received antipsychotics, and she became well and was discharged.
Diabetes and thyroid disorders have been shown to mutually influence each other because of the role of the thyroid gland in the regulation of body metabolism. This work is therefore designed to study the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Adansonia digitata (baobab) on the thyroid gland of alloxan-induced diabetes. Twenty-eight Wistar rats, weighing 120g to 195g were divided into seven groups (n=4). Sham control, Diabetes control, Diabetes + Low dose, Diabetes + High dose, Diabetes + metformin, Low dose, and High dose. Diabetes was induced with a single dose of 150mg/kg alloxan monohydrate and animals were treated with Adansonia digitata for 14 days. This study indicated that the leaf extract of Adansonia digitata increase serum triiodothyronine levels and reversed the histological damage to the thyroid gland. Therefore, Adansonia digitata could be used to manage metabolic dysfunctions in the diabetic thyroid gland
The challenges experienced domestically require immediate service responsiveness of various sub-professionals. These challenges and investigative landscapes draws awareness to epileptic services of this home demand services and tends to an increase of wears and tears of domestic appliances and equipment, hence decreasing their downtime and production. This outcome however is as a result of the hitches inaccessibility of these sub-professionals (artisans) to assist in their maintainability. This paper titled “Improving Home Request Services with Web-Based Android Application” is aimed at designing and implementing an improved home demand services using automated web-based android applications. This study was realized using object-oriented methodology in line with the necessary universal modeling diagrams for the system design and was implemented using Java programming language in android studio as the software development kit. The improved developed system was hosted locally and tested using furry investigative toolbox (instrument tool for testing mobile applications), and the result was recorded and compared with other services rendering systems. The result showed that the developed home request services with web-based android application alleviated the problem of moving about searching for sub-professional (artisans) to render domestic services.
This review sought to highlight the 2017/2018 Measles Vaccination Campaign implementation process in Delta State, Nigeria. Data on different aspects of the campaign were reviewed and analyzed using simple descriptive statistics. A total of 1, 157 827 eligible children were vaccinated, 1368-member teams were trained to offer vaccination services, 26 (25 minor and I major) adverse events following immunization were recorded and subsequently managed by trained clinicians at designated secondary health facilities in the 9 affected local government areas, 17,948 safety boxes were generated, stored and incinerated at the Ibuzor industrial waste plant near the state capital. While 2.59% and 18.02 % of all vaccinated children between the ages of 9 and11 months had received a first measles dose and other doses, 2.08% and 77.32% of all children between the ages of 12-59 months had received the first dose and other doses respectively. The state vaccine wastage rate was 12.2%. At the end of the campaign, the state recorded administrative measles coverage of 106.5% while the National Bureau of Statistics in conjunction with partners reported a post campaign coverage of 93.8%. The measles vaccination campaign for controlling measles in Delta State which targeted children between the ages of 9 and 59 months was able to achieve the desired coverage required for herd immunity. Political support from the state government and from relevant line ministries, robust advocacy, communication with electronic and print media, training of teams and sustained social mobilization were veritable tools to the overall success of the measles campaign in Delta State
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology