Several mathematical models have been proposed for predicting highways traffic noise on highways. Performance of these models depends on location of use, hence, the need for evaluation of existing models before adoption in any location. This study evaluates the predicting accuracy of four mathematical models towards predicting highways traffic noise in Ogun State. These models include Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN), Acoustical Society of Japan-Road Traffic Noise (ASJ RTN), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) model. Traffic noise was measured using a Sound Level Meter on four major highways. Traffic data consisting of traffic volume, type of vehicle, speed, distance and road characteristics were collected and used as input to evaluate the models. Results show that the Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) of the CRTN model was found to be 0.37 while the value RLS90 model was found to be 0.32. In terms of two-sample t-test, the CRTN model had a value of 2.36 while the RLS90 model had a value of 2.97. The CNR and FHWA model had a RMSD value of 0.2 and 0.31 with a t-value of 2.15 and 2.62. The result of the analysis revealed that the CNR model had the best performance when compared to the CRTN, FHWA and RLS90 models, hence the model can be used as a reliable forecast tool for planning and activities aimed at mitigating highway traffic noise in the state.
Sawdust, the major by-products of sawmills and an abundant wood-waste of ≤ 2mm particle size was used to produce particleboards through the binding mechanism of urea-formaldehyde, to minimize its potentials of posing environmental challenges, and study its suitability with urea-formaldehyde resin for the production of less expensive particleboards of acceptable standard. A known mass of the sawdust (3g – 8g) was first blended with 20cm3 of molten paraffin wax, and then with 30cm3 of urea-formaldehyde resin. The blend was molded into board under electrically heated hydraulic press at 150oC and 10 tons for 4 min. The physico-mechanical properties of the particleboard, including water absorption, thickness swell, density, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, specific strength and hardness, were investigated using the conventional methods, and were found satisfactory with reference to the Bureau of Indian Standards and Australian standards for thin particleboards. The properties of the particleboards were dependent on the ratio of the sawdust to the urea-formaldehyde resin. The boards are easily produced and cost effective, and should be an inexpensive alternative for wood panel producers and users because, the end-use application of particleboard is subject to the properties, ease of preparation and cost.
Infrastructure deficit gaps in Nigeria’s electric power supply is prominent, affecting every sector of the nation’s economy ad-modum less productivity, lost and corrupt data, damaged equipment and poor power efficiency. Use of generators as alternative source of electrical power with its characteristic noise and vibration has serious health hazard and environmental impact. The intensity of noise from various generator used in small business enterprises (commercial centres) in Abeokuta metropolis was assessed using a digital sound level meter to determine the intensity of noise level from the generators. Sound emitting from each of the generators was measured from five different points. The associated noise levels at the five distances from the commercial user showed mean values of 109.86, 85.95, 83.09, 80.68 and 81.69 decibels taken at the exhaust, distances of one, two, three meters and closest distance of the generator from the commercial user respectively. Analysis of the measured generator noise loudness using the data obtained for noise level at different distances on typical noise level scale showed that 9.1, 100, 96.6 and 90.9 percents of the generators were very loud at noise at the exhaust and distances of one, two, three meters respectively. It was only at the generator exhaust that 90.9 percent there was uncomfortably loud. This high noise levels obtained necessitates acoustic muffling of the generators.
Renal replacement therapy plays a key role in the management of patients with kidney failure. In most economically disadvantaged nations including Nigeria, haemodialysis is the most available renal replacement therapy. Haemodialysis center was started at Enugu state university teaching hospital on 1st March 2016. The objective of the study is to analyze the activity of the center during the first year of its establishment. This is a retrospective cross sectional study. All the patients that were treated at the center from 1st March 2016 to 28th February 2017 were recruited for the study. Their clinical and laboratory data pre, intra and post-dialysis were entered into a spread sheet and analyzed using SPSS statistical package. A total of 108 patients were dialyzed with a male: female ratio of 1.5:1. The mean age was 46.2±18.1 years, most of the patients were Ibos and of low/middle socioeconomic status. The mean PCV was 22±0.037%, mean serum sodium was 129.8±8.6mmol/l, mean serum potassium was 4.9±0.10mmol/l, mean serum urea was 24.8±12.9mmol/l, and mean serum creatinine was 913.8±424.7umol/l. The month of March had the least(32) sessions of haemodialysis and September had the highest (66)number of sessions. 84.3% had haemodialysis for less than a month and only 4.8% had haemodialysis for at least 6 months. Majority of the patients (67%) had less than 5 sessions of haemodialysis. One (0.9%) patient and 5 (4.8%) patients used ateriovenous fistula and internal jugular catheter as vascular access respectively; others used femoral vein vascular access. Infection, hypertension, hypotension and bleeding were the common complications. One year operation of the haemodialysis at Enugu state university teaching hospital was remarkable; however patients were unable to sustain haemodialysis.
Infertility in humans has rapidly increased prompting researchers to screen herbal extracts and formulations to improve fertility. The aim of this project is to ascertain the efficacy of Addyzoa and some local herbal fertility enhancers on sperm and their effects on some biochemical parameters. Adult Swiss albino male mice were placed in 11 cages of 5 animals each. Animals in cage 1 were administered only water i.e. control group, group 2 was administered Addyzoa, an Ayurvedic fertility enhancer while animals in groups 3 to 11 received local herbal fertility enhancers at different concentrations for 45 days. On the 46th day, the animals were sacrificed. Some sperm and biochemical parameters were assayed. In groups 3, 6 and 11, the animals showed significant (P≤0.05) increase in sperm count while groups 6 and 11 exhibited significant (P≤0.05) increase in sperm motility compared to groups 1 and 2. Photomicrographs showed different sperm morphological aberrations. ALP levels of groups 3, 4 and 6 was significantly (P˂0.05) low while ALT concentration of groups 7 and 11 was significantly (P˂0.05) low compared to group 1. Group 1 showed significant (P˂0.05) increase in AST concentration compared to groups 7, 8 and 10. These results suggests that the herbal boosters administered to groups 3, 6 and 11 improved the quality and quantity of sperm possibly by enhancing asthenozoosermia, increased sperm formation thereby increasing oligozoospermia, supporting and improving teratozoospermia and size thereby preventing DNA damage to sperms.
Selected physical properties of Afzelia africana seeds were determined at four moisture levels: 10.60%, 12.80%, 15.20% and 18.40% wet basis (w.b). The seeds were categorized in three batches according to their weights: Batch I (2g<m<2.99g), Batch II (2.99<m<3.99g) and Batch III (3.99<m³4.99g) respectively. As moisture content ranged from 10.60%-18.40 % (w.b), the mean values of length, width and thickness ranged from 21.782±0.91-25.225±1.11mm, 10.550±0.92-12.970±0.17mm and 7.946±1.03-10.607±0.82mm from batch I – III respectively. Arithmetic and geometric mean diameters, sphericity and projected area ranged from 13.570±0.43-15.823±0.41mm, 12.245±0.33-14.430±0.39mm, 57.80±0.07-75.60±0.03% and 186.218±28.42-256.037±12.98mm2 respectively. Unit mass, unit volume, aspect ratio and surface area ranged from 2.545±0.23g-4.515±0.09g, 7.897±0.89-12.795±1.03cm3, 49.246±5.37-51.519±1.97% and 467.285±25.72-657.734±35.59mm². Porosity, true and bulk densities ranged from 41.851±10.57-45.824±7.72%, 0.656±0.28-1.090±0.30g/cm3 and 0.305±0.08-0.431±0.18g/cm3 respectively. The highest mean value of coefficient of static friction (0.46±0.07) was recorded for iron steel structural surface for batch III, batches I and II recorded the lowest (0.32±0.04) for plywood surface. The highest mean value of angle of repose (32.1388o) was recorded for plywood surface for batch I while the lowest 25.3569o was recorded for batch II on iron steel surface among the three batches.
Antibiotics are among the most widely used drugs to treat patients with various diseases in public and private health institutions. It`s use has been found to be associated with various degrees of antibiotic resistance leading to difficulty in managing these various morbidities. The resistance pattern has been found to co-relate strongly with the pattern of antibiotic use. The study is a retrospective study which aimed at studying the resistance pattern to various antibiotics in two Nigerian teaching hospitals located at different geographical areas of the country. The study aimed at determining the factors associated with increased resistance to antibiotics. The pattern of resistance was found to be higher in the rejoin with more frequent use of antibiotics and some recommendations were proposed as a measure of reducing antibiotic resistance to the barest minimum.
Crying describes a category of behavioral states and serves many purposes in infants, especially to shut out disturbing stimuli and it is of etiologic significance for eliciting appropriate care for infants. Children are usually unhappy about going to bed and sometimes react to sleepiness by crying. Therefore, they need sleep training in order to transition successfully to sleeping on their own. Sleep is important for both parents and their babies and serious consequences can arise from parental chronic sleep deprivation as a result of the infant’s inability to fall asleep his own. More efforts are required to create awareness about appropriate care of the crying infant and correct any harmful practices in our environment. This was a hospital based study carried out in the infant immunization clinics of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital Enugu over a six month period from October 2016 to March 2017. A total of five hundred and eleven respondents participated in the study. Among the respondents, 92.6% had experienced pre-sleep cry in their children. Seventy four percent would respond to the crying infant adjusting to sleeping alone by soothing and cuddling, 1.5% would give sedatives, while 0.6% would ignore the infant completely. We recommend that more efforts should be channeled towards counseling parents and caregivers about effective sleep training techniques so they can make informed choices and reduce the risk of future complications related to poor sleep training techniques.
An Impact Test Apparatus was developed to determine the impact damage and bruise parameters of five fresh agricultural produce, namely: banana (Musa spp), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), sweet potato (Ipomea batatas), cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) and lemon (Citrus limon) using Impact – Drop Height method. A constant impact energy of 0.9J – 4.5J was maintained as drop heights ranged from 0.20m – 1.00m. The bruise diameter, bruise depth, bruise width, bruise volume, bruise resistance and bruise susceptibility of banana ranged from 10mm – 18mm, 6mm – 8mm, 2mm – 4mm, 62.68mm3 – 300.87mm3, 0.014J/mm3 – 0.015J/mm3, 69.64mm3/J – 73.12mm3/J. That of tomato ranged from 10 – 26mm, 6 – 6.5mm, 2.1 – 5mm, 65.81 – 441.39mm3, 0.015 – 0.010J/mm3, 73.12 – 98.08mm3/J. That of sweet potato ranged from 8mm – 16mm, 4mm – 6mm, 2mm – 6mm, 33.43mm3 – 300.87mm3, 0.02J/mm3 – 0.014J/mm3, 37.14mm3/J – 66.86mm3/J. That of cassava tuber ranged from 10mm – 16mm, 3mm – 8mm, 2mm – 4mm, 31.34mm3 – 267.44mm3, 0.03J/mm3 – 0.02J/mm3, 38.82mm3/J – 59.43mm3/J. While that of lemon ranged from 0mm – 7.5mm, 0mm – 4.5mm, 0mm – 5mm, 0mm3 – 88.14mm3, 0J/mm3 – 0.05J/mm3 and 0mm3/J – 19.58mm3/J respectively. Results indicated that bruise parameters increased with impact energy. Tomato has the highest bruise susceptibility, followed by cassava tuber, banana, sweet potato, and lemon, but lemon has the highest bruise resistance. The results would be useful to food processors and engineers in designing packages to reduce impact damage to agricultural produce.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology