Featured Papers

March Edition, 2018 (Vol. 6 No. 1)

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    Application of Potassium Impregnated Calcium oxide/Magnesium oxide Catalyst for Transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil with methanol

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Ibrahim H, Hayatudeen A, Yunusa S,
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time25 September, 2018
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    Biodiesel production using homogenous catalysts associates with high energy consumption and production cost due to the complicated separation and purification of the products. In this investigation, a solid base catalyst, 10%K-CaO/MgO was synthesized, analyzed and used to produce biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil with methanol. The catalyst loading was 0.4 % mass of the oil while the transesterification times were 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes at 60oC. The methyl esters yields were 94.20, 92.00, 82.13, 82.81 and 82.09 % respectively. There was no glycerol in any of the five products. Transesterification time of 20 minutes was found to be enough to produce biodiesel. The catalyst used in this study was capable of producing biodiesel without co-product glycerol.  This process is less expensive compared to homogenous process.

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    EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR PREDICTING HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Osifeko MO, Odufuwa BO
  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time16 May, 2018
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    Several mathematical models have been proposed for predicting highways traffic noise on highways. Performance of these models depends on location of use, hence, the need for evaluation of existing models before adoption in any location. This study evaluates the predicting accuracy of four mathematical models towards predicting highways traffic noise in Ogun State. These models include Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN), Acoustical Society of Japan-Road Traffic Noise (ASJ RTN), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) model. Traffic noise was measured using a Sound Level Meter on four major highways. Traffic data consisting of traffic volume, type of vehicle, speed, distance and road characteristics were collected and used as input to evaluate the models. Results show that the Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) of the CRTN model was found to be 0.37 while the value RLS90 model was found to be 0.32. In terms of two-sample t-test, the CRTN model had a value of 2.36 while the RLS90 model had a value of 2.97. The CNR and FHWA model had a RMSD value of 0.2 and 0.31 with a t-value of 2.15 and 2.62. The result of the analysis revealed that the CNR model had the best performance when compared to the CRTN, FHWA and RLS90 models, hence the model can be used as a reliable forecast tool for planning and activities aimed at mitigating highway traffic noise in the state.

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    ALTERNATIVE FUNCTIONALITY OF WOOD-WASTE THROUGH APPLIED BINDING MECHANISM OF UREA-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Ezeh EC
  • subjectCategory: Physical Sciences
  • access_time3 April, 2018
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    Sawdust, the major by-products of sawmills and an abundant wood-waste of ≤ 2mm particle size was used to produce particleboards through the binding mechanism of urea-formaldehyde, to minimize its potentials of posing environmental challenges, and study its suitability with urea-formaldehyde resin for the production of  less expensive particleboards of acceptable standard. A known mass of the sawdust (3g – 8g) was first blended with 20cm3 of molten paraffin wax, and then with 30cm3 of urea-formaldehyde resin. The blend was molded into board under electrically heated hydraulic press at 150oC and 10 tons for 4 min. The physico-mechanical properties of the particleboard, including water absorption, thickness swell, density, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, specific strength and hardness, were investigated using the conventional methods, and were found satisfactory with reference to the Bureau of Indian Standards and Australian standards for thin particleboards. The properties of the particleboards were dependent on the ratio of the sawdust to the urea-formaldehyde resin. The boards are easily produced and cost effective, and should be an inexpensive alternative for wood panel producers and users because, the end-use application of particleboard is subject to the properties, ease of preparation and cost.

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    EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE FROM PETROL FUELLED PORTABLE POWER GENERATORS USED IN COMMERCIAL AREAS

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Azodo AP, Omokaro I, Mezue TC, Owoeye FT
  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time3 April, 2018
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    Infrastructure deficit gaps in Nigeria’s electric power supply is prominent, affecting every sector of the nation’s economy ad-modum less productivity, lost and corrupt data, damaged equipment and poor power efficiency. Use of generators as alternative source of electrical power with its characteristic noise and vibration has serious health hazard and environmental impact. The intensity of noise from various generator used in small business enterprises (commercial centres) in Abeokuta metropolis was assessed using a digital sound level meter to determine the intensity of noise level from the generators. Sound emitting from each of the generators was measured from five different points. The associated noise levels at the five distances from the commercial user showed mean values of 109.86, 85.95, 83.09, 80.68 and 81.69 decibels taken at the exhaust, distances of one, two, three meters and closest distance of the generator from the commercial user respectively. Analysis of the measured generator noise loudness using the data obtained for noise level at different distances on typical noise level scale showed that 9.1, 100, 96.6 and 90.9 percents of the generators were very loud at noise at the exhaust and distances of one, two, three meters respectively. It was only at the generator exhaust that 90.9 percent there was uncomfortably loud. This high noise levels obtained necessitates acoustic muffling of the generators.

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    HAEMODIALYSIS AT ENUGU STATE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL ENUGU NIGERIA: 1ST YEAR EXPERIENCE

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Okafor UH, Nwoye EO, Ogbobe OA
  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time3 April, 2018
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    Renal replacement therapy plays a key role in the management of patients with kidney failure. In most economically disadvantaged nations including Nigeria, haemodialysis is the most available renal replacement therapy. Haemodialysis center was started at Enugu state university teaching hospital on 1st March 2016. The objective of the study is to analyze the activity of the center during the first year of its establishment. This is a retrospective cross sectional study. All the patients that were treated at the center from 1st March 2016 to 28th February 2017 were recruited for the study. Their clinical and laboratory data pre, intra and post-dialysis were entered into a spread sheet and analyzed using SPSS statistical package. A total of 108 patients were dialyzed with a male: female ratio of 1.5:1. The mean age was 46.2±18.1 years, most of the patients were Ibos and of low/middle socioeconomic status. The mean PCV was 22±0.037%, mean serum sodium was 129.8±8.6mmol/l, mean serum potassium was 4.9±0.10mmol/l, mean serum urea was 24.8±12.9mmol/l, and mean serum creatinine was 913.8±424.7umol/l. The month of March had the least(32) sessions of haemodialysis and September had the highest (66)number of sessions. 84.3% had haemodialysis for less than a month and only 4.8% had haemodialysis for at least 6 months. Majority of the patients (67%) had less than 5 sessions of haemodialysis. One (0.9%) patient and 5 (4.8%) patients used ateriovenous fistula and internal jugular catheter as vascular access respectively; others used femoral vein vascular access. Infection, hypertension, hypotension and bleeding were the common complications. One year operation of the haemodialysis at Enugu state university teaching hospital was remarkable; however patients were unable to sustain haemodialysis.

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    EVALUATION OF EFFICACY OF TEN HERBAL SPERM BOOSTERS USING MALE SWISS ALBINO MICE AS EXPERIMENTAL MODEL

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Iroanya OO, Adewole HA, Nwoko CL, Folarin OA, Adelabu MA
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time3 April, 2018
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    Infertility in humans has rapidly increased prompting researchers to screen herbal extracts and formulations to improve fertility. The aim of this project is to ascertain the efficacy of Addyzoa and some local herbal fertility enhancers on sperm and their effects on some biochemical parameters. Adult Swiss albino male mice were placed in 11 cages of 5 animals each. Animals in cage 1 were administered only water i.e. control group, group 2 was administered Addyzoa, an Ayurvedic fertility enhancer while animals in groups 3 to 11 received local herbal fertility enhancers at different concentrations for 45 days. On the 46th day, the animals were sacrificed. Some sperm and biochemical parameters were assayed. In groups 3, 6 and 11, the animals showed significant (P≤0.05) increase in sperm count while groups 6 and 11 exhibited significant (P≤0.05) increase in sperm motility compared to groups 1 and 2. Photomicrographs showed different sperm morphological aberrations. ALP levels of groups 3, 4 and 6 was significantly (P˂0.05) low while ALT concentration of groups 7 and 11 was significantly (P˂0.05) low compared to group 1. Group 1 showed significant (P˂0.05) increase in AST concentration compared to groups 7, 8 and 10. These results suggests that the herbal boosters administered to groups 3, 6 and 11 improved the quality and quantity of sperm possibly by enhancing asthenozoosermia, increased sperm formation thereby increasing oligozoospermia, supporting and  improving teratozoospermia and size thereby preventing DNA damage to sperms.

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    DETERMINATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF AFZELIA AFRICANA SEEDS.

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Eze OC, Igwillo UC.
  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time3 April, 2018
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    Selected physical properties of Afzelia africana seeds were determined at four moisture levels: 10.60%, 12.80%, 15.20% and 18.40% wet basis (w.b). The seeds were categorized in three batches according to their weights: Batch I (2g<m<2.99g), Batch II (2.99<m<3.99g) and Batch III (3.99<m³4.99g) respectively. As moisture content ranged from 10.60%-18.40 % (w.b), the mean values of length, width and thickness ranged from 21.782±0.91-25.225±1.11mm, 10.550±0.92-12.970±0.17mm and 7.946±1.03-10.607±0.82mm from batch I – III respectively. Arithmetic and geometric mean diameters, sphericity and projected area ranged from 13.570±0.43-15.823±0.41mm, 12.245±0.33-14.430±0.39mm, 57.80±0.07-75.60±0.03% and 186.218±28.42-256.037±12.98mm2 respectively. Unit mass, unit volume, aspect ratio and surface area ranged from 2.545±0.23g-4.515±0.09g, 7.897±0.89-12.795±1.03cm3, 49.246±5.37-51.519±1.97% and 467.285±25.72-657.734±35.59mm². Porosity, true and bulk densities ranged from 41.851±10.57-45.824±7.72%, 0.656±0.28-1.090±0.30g/cm3 and 0.305±0.08-0.431±0.18g/cm3 respectively. The highest mean value of coefficient of static friction (0.46±0.07) was recorded for iron steel structural surface for batch III, batches I and II recorded the lowest (0.32±0.04) for plywood surface. The highest mean value of angle of repose (32.1388o) was recorded for plywood surface for batch I while the lowest 25.3569o was recorded for batch II on iron steel surface among the three batches.

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    ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERN IN TWO NIGERIAN TERTIARY HOSPITALS

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Okpara TC, Ugochukwu AI, Isah AO, Neboh EE
  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time3 April, 2018
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    Antibiotics are among the most widely used drugs to treat patients with various diseases in public and private health institutions. It`s use has been found to be associated with various degrees of antibiotic resistance leading to difficulty in managing these various morbidities. The resistance pattern has been found to co-relate strongly with the pattern of antibiotic use. The study is a retrospective study which aimed at studying the resistance pattern to various antibiotics in two Nigerian teaching hospitals located at different geographical areas of the country. The study aimed at determining the factors associated with increased resistance to antibiotics. The pattern of resistance was found to be higher in the rejoin with more frequent use of antibiotics and some recommendations were proposed as a measure of reducing antibiotic resistance to the barest minimum.

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    PRE-SLEEP CRYING IN INFANTS: THE PERCEPTION OF PARENTS IN THE SOUTH EASTERN REGION OF NIGERIA.

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Ndu IK, Manyike CP, Ekwochi U, Igbokwe OO, Edelu BO, Adimorah GN
  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time3 April, 2018
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    Crying describes a category of behavioral states and serves many purposes in infants, especially to shut out disturbing stimuli and it is of etiologic significance for eliciting appropriate care for infants. Children are usually unhappy about going to bed and sometimes react to sleepiness by crying. Therefore, they need sleep training in order to transition successfully to sleeping on their own. Sleep is important for both parents and their babies and serious consequences can arise from parental chronic sleep deprivation as a result of the infant’s inability to fall asleep his own. More efforts are required to create awareness about appropriate care of the crying infant and correct any harmful practices in our environment. This was a hospital based study carried out in the infant immunization clinics of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital Enugu over a six month period from October 2016 to March 2017. A total of five hundred and eleven respondents participated in the study. Among the respondents, 92.6% had experienced pre-sleep cry in their children. Seventy four percent would respond to the crying infant adjusting to sleeping alone by soothing and cuddling, 1.5% would give sedatives, while 0.6% would ignore the infant completely. We recommend that more efforts should be channeled towards counseling parents and caregivers about effective sleep training techniques so they can make informed choices and reduce the risk of future complications related to poor sleep training techniques.

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    IMPACT DAMAGE TO SELECTED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE FROM SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Igwillo UC
  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time3 April, 2018
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    An Impact Test Apparatus was developed to determine the impact damage and bruise parameters of five fresh agricultural produce, namely: banana (Musa spp), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), sweet potato (Ipomea batatas), cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) and lemon (Citrus limon) using Impact – Drop Height method. A constant impact energy of 0.9J – 4.5J was maintained as drop heights ranged from 0.20m – 1.00m. The bruise diameter, bruise depth, bruise width, bruise volume, bruise resistance and bruise susceptibility of banana ranged from 10mm – 18mm, 6mm – 8mm, 2mm – 4mm, 62.68mm3 – 300.87mm3, 0.014J/mm3 – 0.015J/mm3, 69.64mm3/J – 73.12mm3/J. That of tomato ranged from 10 – 26mm, 6 – 6.5mm, 2.1 – 5mm, 65.81 – 441.39mm3, 0.015 – 0.010J/mm3, 73.12 – 98.08mm3/J. That of sweet potato ranged from 8mm – 16mm, 4mm – 6mm, 2mm – 6mm, 33.43mm3 – 300.87mm3, 0.02J/mm3 – 0.014J/mm3, 37.14mm3/J – 66.86mm3/J. That of cassava tuber ranged from 10mm – 16mm, 3mm – 8mm, 2mm – 4mm, 31.34mm3 – 267.44mm3, 0.03J/mm3 – 0.02J/mm3, 38.82mm3/J – 59.43mm3/J. While that of lemon ranged from 0mm – 7.5mm, 0mm – 4.5mm, 0mm – 5mm, 0mm3 – 88.14mm3, 0J/mm3 – 0.05J/mm3 and 0mm3/J – 19.58mm3/J respectively. Results indicated that bruise parameters increased with impact energy. Tomato has the highest bruise susceptibility, followed by cassava tuber, banana, sweet potato, and lemon, but lemon has the highest bruise resistance. The results would be useful to food processors and engineers in designing packages to reduce impact damage to agricultural produce.

June Edition, 2018 (Vol. 6 No. 2)

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    NEUROLOGICAL ADMISSIONS AT ENUGU STATE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL: A 5-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Surveys of neurologic admissions into various Nigerian health institutions show an increasing burden of disorders such as stroke in our communities. Few studies have documented the pattern and mortality on neurologic admissions in South East Nigeria. The pattern and mortality of neurologic cases admitted into the medical wards of the Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital was determined. Classifications of medical disorders were grouped using ICD 10 coding system. The total number of neurologic disorders recorded in the case files was 1,031(28%). The commonest causes of neurologic admission were stroke-577(56%), coma of undetermined causes 87(15.3%) and central nervous system infections 84(8.1%). Infections were the commonest causes of admission below 40 years- 48(27.6%) while stroke was the most common disorder after 40 years.  Neurologic disorders accounted for 38% of medical ward mortality with a mortality rate of 26.5% (273/1031), most of which was due to stroke 57.1%(156/273).  Case fatality rates were highest for coma (50.6%), hepatic encephalopathy 15(36.6%) and hypertensive encephalopathy 10(29.4%). The case fatality rate for stroke was 156(27%). Mortality rates closely reflected admission rates in all cases except in infectious diseases. We concluded that stroke is by far the commonest cause of neurologic admission and death in a tertiary hospital in Enugu. Well-articulated public health educational programs will go a long way to reduce morbidity and mortality of neurologic disorders.

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    EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL, PROXIMATE AND NUTRITIVE POTENTIALS OF Cocos nucifera (COCONUT) SEEDS

  • subjectCategory: Biochemistry/Molecular Biology
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    The phytochemical, proximate, vitamins and mineral element composition of Coconut (Cocos nucifera) were investigated in this research. The phytochemical properties of the sample were screened qualitatively and also quantified and the result revealed a significant amount of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and reducing sugars while saponins, glycosides, soluble carbohydrate and terpenoids were found in trace amount, hydrogen cyanides not detected qualitatively. The proximate analyses of the Cocos nucifera sample was carried out using the methods described by Pearson and the results showed high level of crude fats 56.36±0.04% and carbohydrate 31.29±0.14%, a considerable amount of moisture and crude protein 8.33±0.03 and 7.53±0.05%, respectively and also, ash 2.43±0.03% and fibre 2.38±0.07%. This composition shows that the sample could be a good source of oil, carbohydrate, dietary fibre and protein. However, the methods outlined by AOAC, 2000 were used to determine the mineral composition of the Cocos nucifera seeds. The results revealed that the sample posses preponderance amount of mineral elements; magnesium 318.11±7.07 mg, calcium 25.87±0.09 mg, potassium 29.92±0.04 mg, sodium 16.92±0.06 mg, phosphorus 4.54±0.03 mg and copper 1.24±0.02mg per 100g dry weight respectively; with trace amounts of manganese 0.64±0.01 mg, zinc 0.76±0.06 mg and iron 0.62±0.01 mg. This implies that Cocos nucifera seeds no doubt is a good source of minerals despite the negligible amount of iron, zinc and manganese. The method of Association of Official and Analytical Chemists AOAC, 1990 was used for the vitamins analyses and the seed sample was also found to contain an appreciable amount of vitamin A 3.12±0.01 mg/100g, vitamin C 14.71±0.05 mg/100g, vitamin B2 1.76±0.41 mg/100g and vitamin B6 1.61±0.04mg/100g. Other vitamins analysed on the seed extract though found in trace amount were vitamin D, E, K, B1, B3, B5, B9 and B12. The results from the present study implicitly showed that Cocos nucifera seed is nutritionally potent and could be good for dietary supplements in human and animal nutrition.

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    A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PRESCHOOL AGED CHILDREN IN ENUGU URBAN, NIGERIA

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Reports on nutritional status of the preschool children in developing economies are very important and such studies require the use of World Health Organization (WHO) z-score system to enable international comparison. This study aimed to determine the nutritional status of preschool aged children in Enugu urban, South-East Nigeria. Four hundred and nine (409) preschool children aged 2-5 years were recruited from the schools using stratified multistage sampling method. Their anthropometry were measured, weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC)-for-age were computed. The z-scores were calculated using the WHO/z-score international reference standard. The overall mean weight-for-age (W/A), height-for-age (H/A), weight-for-height (W/H) and MUAC-for-age were 17.7 ±3.7kg, 105.3 ±10.0cm, 15.8±1.4kg and 16.5 ±1.4cm respectively. Their mean z-scores were 0.92, 0.99, 0.51 and 0.35 respectively. The prevalence of underweight, wasting, stunting, low MUAC based on W/A, H/A, W/H below -2 z score of the WHO standards were 17.2%, 10.1%, 21.4% and 1.9% respectively. The prevalence of obesity using W/H greater than 2 z scores was 5.6%. The peak age incidence of malnutrition using all indices of nutritional status was 4 years. There is a high prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children in Enugu urban, Nigeria. Institution and implementation of urgent nutritional intervention programme targeting this age group is necessary to reduce this high prevalence in our environment and other developing countries.

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    KNOWLEDGE OF FLOOD CAUSES AND ITS INFLUENCING FACTORS AS A PREREQUISITE FOR EFFECTIVE EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS IN A RURAL COMMUNITY OF KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

  • subjectCategory: Environmental Sciences
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Flood is one of the most devastating, frequently occurring and costliest natural hazard in the world. The establishment of early warning systems which could be a step in the right direction towards reducing this menace could be limited by the level of knowledge of the causes. This study was conducted to assess the social factors that could affect the efficiency of early warning systems using their respective relationships with the knowledge on flood causative factors in a rural community of Kogi State, Nigeria. A  cross  sectional  study  was conducted  among  325 households  in  Oforachi community using quantitative  method  of  data  collection.  Pearson’s Chi Square Measure of Association and student t-test were used to assess the respective associations of the social factors with the level of knowledge using STATA/SE statistical software version 13.1 at 95% confidence level. The results showed that 8.00 % of the respondents had fair knowledge, 80.92% had good knowledge while, 11.08% had excellent knowledge of the causes of flood. The factors that influenced the knowledge level of the respondents in decreasing order of associations are Age, Education, Occupation, Flood experience, Marital Status and Ward. The knowledge of these associating factors will be very instrumental for the development of effective early warning signals and non-structural flood control measures.

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    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF RB-LEACH WITH VARYING NUMBER OF REGIONS IN WSN

  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Network lifetime has been an area critically and most extensively researched in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) due to the finite energy in the deployed sensor nodes. Diverse routing protocols have been proposed for use in WSNs for the main purpose of extension of the network lifetime without the degradation in the network throughput and efficiency. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of RB-LEACH (a homogenous centralized routing protocol) deployed using different numbers of regions. The RB-LEACH has been implemented with 8 sub-regions and 12 sub-regions, which was compared with the performance of the RB-LEACH of 10 sub-regions. The result shows considerable improvement in the stability period of the network with a decrease in the number of sub-regions and vice versa.

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    EFFECTS OF BLENDED FERTILIZERS ON LEAF NUTRIENTS CONTENT OF MATURE CLONAL TEA IN KENYA

  • subjectCategory: Agricultural Sciences
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Fertilizer studies in Kenya tea industry have focused predominantly on compound NPK. These fertilizers cannot be easily manipulated for specific soils and tea clones. In this respect, Athi River Mining limited has produced Mavuno blended NPK fertilizers with calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). However, their application rates that would result in optimal nutrients uptake are lacking. This is the knowledge gap that this study sought to address. Therefore, the fertilizer blends were assessed for their effects on nutrients uptake at different rate in two sites. The sites were selected purposefully, one in the eastern and the other in the western tea growing areas. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) were used to select 36 trial plots in the two areas which were treated with three fertilizer types where one type was control, and four fertilizer application rates with one rate being a control. The trial was replicated three times. Leaf samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients content. The data were then subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Mstat C computer software package. Two leaves and a bud had higher nitrogen content (Timbilil 4.84%; Kagochi 4.53%) compared to deficient levels in mature leaf (Timbilil 2.26%; Kagochi 2.95%). This study has shown that supplementing the soil applied NPK fertilizers with calcium, magnesium and micronutrients resulted in better nutrients uptake.

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    CAUSES OF DELAYED PRESENTATION IN PATIENTS WITH HYDROCEPHALUS

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Hydrocephalus is one of the common neurosurgical conditions that present to neurosurgeons in our environment. Delay in presentation for neurosurgical care can result insignificant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is important to reduce morbidity and mortality in these patients. This study set out to determine the causes of delay in presentation of patients with hydrocephalus for treatment in our environment. A prospective cross-sectional study of all patients with hydrocephalus that presented between January 2012 and December 2014 was carried out. The relevant data were recorded prospectively in clinical summary forms and an electronic spreadsheet. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL) for statistical analyses. Of the 72 patients, 50 (69.4%) experienced a delay of >4 weeks from onset of symptoms to definitive presentation to the neurosurgeon. Occurrence of neurological deterioration in those that experienced delay was statistically significant compared to patients who did not experience delay (chi square χ2 = 2.967, p = 0.002). Of the 50 patients with delayed presentation, it was due to lack of fund in 29 (58%) patients, ignorance in 11 (15.3%), religious beliefs in 7 (9.7%) and delayed referral in 3 (6.0%) patients. Barriers exist that prevent early patient presentation for neurosurgical treatment of hydrocephalus. These are all preventable and efforts should be geared towards this.

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    PITUITARY ABSCESS MIMICKING PITUITARY MACROADENOMA: AN UNUSUAL SELLAR LESION (CASE STUDY)

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Pituitary abscess can be defined as an involvement of the pituitary gland by an intrasellar inflective process. Correct diagnosis is difficult before surgery. It is usually made unexpectedly at surgery or autopsy. The objectives include to draw attention of Neurosurgeons to its rarity so as to consider it in the list of differential  diagnosis of sellar lesions, offer appropriate and optimal treatment and finally to review the literature of the subject matter.  We report a sixty-three year old right handed Bhutanese referred from a Government hospital in Bhutan with recurrent intermittent headache and vomiting of two years and one week duration respectively. He was in apparent good health prior to onset of symptoms and there was no identifiable aetiology. Physical and neurological examination was unremarkable. MRI revealed a sellar lesion with parasellar extension suspected to be pituitary macroadenoma.  Patient had microsurgical trans-sphenoidal drainage of the abscess after resurcitation and optimization. Pituitary abscess was diagnosed intra-operatively. Patient was placed on antibiotics and was discharged home on a stable condition. Microbiology (culture + AFB) was negative and histology revealed a pituitary abscess in a probably existing pituitary adenoma. In conclusion, pituitary abscess still remains rare and potentially life-threatening. Diagnosis before surgery is difficult.  It should be entertained in the differential diagnosis in patients with hypopituitarism with sellar or parasellar mass.

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    EVALUATION OF NUTRITIONAL AND ANTI-NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITIONS OF LEAVES OF GINGKO BILOBA (MAIDEN HAIR) TREE FOUND IN NIGERIA

  • subjectCategory: Biochemistry/Molecular Biology
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Ginkgo biloba (GB) leaves and extracts have been recognized worldwide for its renowned nutritional and medicinal properties. GB tree is highly grown and used in Asian and South American countries unlike Nigeria. In this study, we examined the nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of GB leaves (whole dried, and aqueous and ethanol extracts) grown in Nigeria. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method was used to determine the proximate and vitamin compositions while Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to analyze the minerals. Anti-nutrients analysis was done using gas chromatography. The results of analyses on whole dried leaves showed that the nutritional composition was high in carbohydrate (59.70+1.02mg/100g) and energy value (287.00+2.59Kcal/g) and low in protein (6.65+0.38mg/100g), lipid (2.40+0.14mg/100g), fibre (2.50+0.21mg/100g) and moisture (15.65+0.38mg/100g). High concentrations was also observed for vitamins A (79.75+9.05), C (79.20+2.56) and E (59.31+2.84) while vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and B12  (1.53+0.04, 2.98+0.62, 2.44+0.25, 3.57+0.24 and 0.28+0.01 mg/100g) respectively, were found in lower concentrations. The mineral analysis also showed high concentrations in macro minerals especially calcium and magnesium (24.620+0.410 and 18.450+0.28mg/100g) followed by phosphorous (4.896+0.003mg/100g), potassium (4.332+0.000mg/100g), and sodium (2.340+0.001mg/100g). The concentrations in micro minerals were iron (6.667+0.003mg/100g), zinc (1.851+0.001mg/100g), manganese (0.626+0.025mg/100g), copper (0.640+0.000mg/100g) and selenium (0.391+0.003mg/100g). However, the absence of molybedenum (Mo) in the leaves was observed. The calcium/phosphorous and sodium/potassium ratios were 5.029+0.087 and 0.540+0.000 mg/100g respectively. The anti-nutrients analysis of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaf showed low concentrations of phytate, oxalate and tannin. The low concentrations observed are considered to be non-toxic to man. These investigations have revealed the nutritional potentials of Ginkgo biloba leaves grown in Nigeria. The findings therefore, will be useful for nutritional and medical practice in Nigeria and beyond for maintenance of good health of individuals.

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    PAEDIATRIC MORTALITY AND AUTOPSIES IN ENUGU STATE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL, ESUTH/PARKLANE, ENUGU, NIGERIA: A 5- YEAR REVIEW

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Autopsy has traditionally been the criterion for determining cause of death and has played a major role in medical education and quality control. World over autopsies are carried out to determine cause(s) of death or to confirm the pathological processes that were suspected to be deranged prior to demise. They are relevant in guiding genetic counseling and helping families that are grieving. Despite these uses and applications, autopsy rates have declined globally. This study was undertaken to identify the in-patient mortality and autopsy rate in children at the Enugu State University Teaching Hospital ESUTH/Parklane, Enugu Nigeria. The report is a retrospective review of all the deaths among the hospitalized children from 1st January 2013 to 31st December 2017. Relevant information was extracted from the hospital records of all paediatric in-patients. Autopsy reports of all paediatric autopsies were pulled from the Histopathology department of ESUTH/Parklane. Information extracted from the autopsy reports and the hospital records were recorded in the proforma. Out of 11,570 children that were admitted during the period under review, 786 (6.79%) paediatric deaths were recorded, of which 423 (53.8%) were males and 363 (46.2%) were females; giving a male: female ratio of 1.17: 1. Out of the 786 in-patient paediatric deaths, only 3 (0.4%) autopsies were conducted. We concluded that despite the importance of autopsies, paediatric autopsies are not routinely performed in our environment and new strategies are needed to increase autopsy rates.

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    INDUSTRIAL SAFETY IN ELEVATOR INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE: ANALYSIS OF INDUSTRIAL REPORTS IN NIGERIA. (Short Communication)

  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Elevators installation demands a high safety requirement and manpower training. Any noticeable fault in the elevator affects not only the operations in the industries but also trigger high fatality rate among workers. In order to maintain a hitch free operation in high rise building, an elevator must be frequently and appropriately maintained to sustain its operational efficiency. In this study, attempts were made to analyse the operational performance of elevators in Nigeria with focal point on existing data domiciled in major industrial players. Key of the results emanating from this research indicates that 49% of serious injury was as a result of accidental fall during installation of elevators with high mortality rate between 2001-2006. Further investigation revealed that practicable maintenance method particularly risk based inspection must be rejuvenated with strong political will from government to enforce basic tenet of industrial safety.

September Edition, 2018 (Vol. 6 No. 3)

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    Factors Determining Prescribers’ Initiation of Empirical Antibiotic Therapy.

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time8 December, 2018
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    Antibiotics are among the most widely used drugs to treat patients with various diseases in public and private health institutions.  Some factors has been noted to affect the prescriber`s reason for empirically initiating antibiotic therapy in different disease conditions. These factors include;  News letter,  Drug presentation by pharmacy representatives, drugs in stock in hospital pharmacy, drugs in essential medicine list, age of the patient, adverse drug reaction, cost of the drug, appropriate indication and the clinical state of the patient.. The aim of the study was to determine the most common factors responsible for the prescriber`s initiation of empirical antibiotic therapy. At the end it was discovered that the clinical state of the patient, appropriate indication and the cost of the drug ranked high among the list of the factors that determine empirical antibiotic therapy.

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    Peer Support Group Participation and its Effects on HIV-related Knowledge among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Enugu State, Nigeria.

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time25 September, 2018
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    Positive management of patients living with HIV/AIDS requires patient knowledge on HIV-related issues as it reduces the risk of super-infection, as well as prevents spread of infection. This study aims at determining and comparing the level of HIV- related knowledge of people living with HIV/AIDS in peer and non-peer support groups in Enugu State, Nigeria.  A total of 420 HIV-positive adults in peer support and non-peer support groups each took part in this multi facility-based cross-sectional study. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on HIV transmission and treatment.  Differences between variables were tested for significance using Chi-square test.  Multiple logistic regression model was used to determine predictors of knowledge. Overall, knowledge on HIV was significantly higher among respondents in the peer support groups (57.4%) when compared with respondents not in peer support groups (44.0%). Lack of formal education (AOR 0.073, 95% CI: 0.007-0.758) predicted poor knowledge among respondents in peer support groups while having primary education as the highest educational qualification (AOR 0.300, 95% CI: 0.155 – 0.583) and a baseline CD4 <200cells/μl (AOR 0.448, 95% CI: 0.214 – 0.939) predicted poor knowledge among respondents, not in peer support groups. Our findings indicate that peer support education will significantly improve the level of HIV-related knowledge among PLHIV in Enugu Nigeria. Having a better understanding of the information can promote behavioural modifications resulting in better treatment outcome.

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    Characterization of Small scale Lumber saw Mills in a Rural Area in Nigeria

  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time25 September, 2018
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    Activities of small scale lumber mills in the rural areas in Nigeria play a vital role in the local economy as a key rural employment generator. Unlike major saw mills in cities which have received lots of attention from researchers, policy makers and the general public, very little information is available on the activities of small scale lumber mills in the rural areas. An assessment of 7 small scale lumber mills was carried out by this study in Ibogun-a cluster of rural settlements in Ifo Local government area of Ogun State Nigeria. Preliminary investigations revealed that 42% of operators used only table saws for their operations while 52% utilized table saws, planning and smoothening machines respectively. The major power source in each of the sites visited was from air cooled diesel engines with 10-15 horse power capacity. Three major lumber sizes were identified as raw materials. The average total Energy expended daily was 318.04 MJ, average daily operational cost was ₦3436.43 ($9.4). Daily power utilization in the conversion process was estimated while the efficiencies of each site in size reduction process ranged from 85-87% respectively. 

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    Treatability Assessment of Abattoir Wastewater using Pennisetum purpureium stalks as Filter Media: A Pilot Study

  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time25 September, 2018
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    A pilot study was performed using three integrated column bioreactors with elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) stalks as filter media in treating abattoir effluent. The reactors (50 cm height, 10 cm diameter and a supportive gravel of 5 cm depth at the bottom) with individual volume of 3.5 L and a working volume of 3.1 L were constructed using 15 cm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes. Freshly harvested elephant grass stalks were pre-treated, characterized and chopped to an average length of 20 mm - 40 mm. Wastewater was fed into the bioreactors at a constant flow rate of 0.00024 m3/hr. using a variable speed peristaltic pump with hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15, 30, 40 and 60 hours. The results obtained indicated a maximum removal efficiency of 43.03% for BOD, 35.93% for COD, 62.42% for Protein, 39.84% for Alkalinity (CaCO3) and 63.33% for Ammonia nitrogen (NH4+) after a retention time of 60 hours. Increase in removal efficiencies with HRT time was observed for all the investigated parameters except pH, which slightly increased from a near neutral value of 5.6 to a slightly acidic value of 6.2. The Total Coliform Count also increased from 3.2 x 105 to 6.9 x 105 CFUs. The column reactor was adjudged to achieve an increasingly stable performance with time; however, further work is required to optimize the system and determine its long-term use. The authors further recommended the use of the treated effluent for irrigation of agricultural crops.

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    Effect of Age on the Space Available for the Cervical Spinal Cord (SAC) of Asymptomatic Adult Nigerians

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time25 September, 2018
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    Frequency and burden of care of spinal cord injury (SCI) is high in Nigeria. Efforts should be channelled at identification of asymptomatic individuals at risk as a form of primary prevention strategy. This study analysed the age-adjusted space available for the spinal cord (SAC) values to identify age groups with critical drop in SAC values that suggest higher anatomical predisposition to SCI. This would serve as screening tool to predict risk of trauma or degenerative disease induced SCI from compromised CSF cushion. The study is a T1Wi MRI-based prospective, cross-sectional study of 100 randomly selected asymptomatic adults aged 21-50 years. SAC was calculated by subtracting disc level mid-sagittal spinal cord dimension (C) from corresponding level spinal canal dimension (S). The result revealed that the Mean-SAC for all age groups was 4.9±0.23mm. Age adjusted SAC value varied from 5.40±0.38mm (20-25 years) to 4.61±0.77mm (41-45 years) and 3.49±0.39mm (46-50 years). At C3/4 SAC was 5.54mm (21-25years) and 4.14(41-45years), 3.42mm (46-50years). (P=0.0001). At C4/5 SAC was 4.89mm (21-25years), 4.31mm (41-45years) and 3.42mm (46-50years). (P=0.015). At C5/6 SAC was 4.98mm (21-25years), 4.30mm (41-45years) and 2.97mm (46-50years). (P=0.0001). At C6/7 SAC was 5.42mm (21-25years), 4.89mm (41-45years) and 3.67mm(46-50years). (P=0.001). Pairwise comparison revealed significant drop in SAC values obtained in the 41-50 years group across all disc levels when compared with SAC value obtained from 20-40 years.(P=0.0001). Effect of age was mostly at C3/4 to C5/6 levels. This study has revealed that the study population had very small space available for the cervical spinal cord when compared with other populations and with further significant drop in SAC after 45 years of age. Small SAC values with advancing age suggest increased risk of cervical cord injury and need to utilize the magnetic resonance imaging derived SAC as screening strategy to assess the level of risk for spinal cord injury among the asymptomatic high risk individuals.

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    Photometric Determination of Macro-Micro Minerals in West African Mud Creeper, Tympanotonus fuscatus var radula (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time25 September, 2018
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    The flesh and shell of the West African Mud creeper, Tympanotonus fuscatus var radula from Abule-Eledu Creek were analysed by Flame and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry for their contents of the macro-minerals: calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium, and the micro-minerals: iron, zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, lead  and cadmium. The highest macro-mineral was phosphorus; 86±14.15 mg/100g in flesh and 67.05±18.85 mg/100g in shell, while the least was magnesium; 19.58±0.96 mg/100g in flesh and 35.3±0.64 mg/100g in shell. The shell of the investigated periwinkle was significantly higher (p<0.05) in content of calcium, magnesium and potassium than in the flesh. The concentrations of micro-minerals; copper (1.25 mg/100g), zinc (0.76 mg/100g), chromium (0.06 mg/100g) and iron (6.00 mg/100g) in the flesh samples were higher than the concentration in the shell and consequently higher than FEPA standard limits of these elements in sea food. It has been observed that Tympanotonus fuscatus var radula from Abule-Eledu Creek could provide a significant proportion of needed inorganic nutrients; these relatively high concentrations of trace metals give certain restrictions on the dietary intake.

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    Emissions Characteristics of LPG Retrofitted Generator

  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time25 September, 2018
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    Concern on air pollution continues to receive a great deal of global interest due to its negative impacts on human health and by extension the surroundings. Recent studies reported the important correlations between air pollution and certain diseases including asthma, breath distortion, sore throat, chest pain, nausea, bronchitis and lung cancer, acute health effects include eye irritation, headache. The World Health Organization (WHO) states that 2.4 million people die yearly from causes directly attributable to air pollution. Epidemiological studies suggest that more than 500,000 Americans also die yearly from cardiopulmonary disease linked to breathing fine particle air pollution. The objective of this study is focused on the emission analysis of different ratios of two fuels: LPG (propane) and gasoline (petrol) under different loadings. The components used in the research consist of a 4- stroke, spark ignition ELEPAQ generator, carbon-monoxide analyzer (CO meter), weighing balance and particulate matter (PM) meter which measures the particulate matter. The fuels, gasoline in litre (litres) and LPG in kilogram (kilogramme) were used to assess their impacts on the exhaust gas emission released. The results revealed that particle number concentration, carbon-monoxide (CO) increased as the engine loading increases in gasoline (fuel). Using LPG, the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration level was less, significant reduction in exhaust emissions, but high temperature in the environment than gasoline (petrol) on engine loading. The engine, while running with LPG fuel showed improved engine performance in terms of – fuel economy, overall efficiency and significantly better exhaust emission characteristics, compared to that of gasoline.

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    Effect of Weather Elements on Malaria Prevalence in Agbani, Enugu, Nigeria.

  • subjectCategory: Environmental Sciences
  • access_time25 September, 2018
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    Climate and weather play significant role in spread of some diseases such as malaria. Global estimates show that about 300 million acute cases of malaria occur every year, resulting in more than one million deaths. Effect of weather elements on malaria prevalence in Agbani, Nkanu West local government area of Enugu state was examined in this study. Climate data of rainfall, temperature and relative humidity (2005 – 2014) were gotten from the ESUT Meteorological Observatory, Ebeano city for a period of ten years, Medical records was obtained from the pathological test register of University of Nigerian Teaching Hospital (UNTH) of different tests for malaria parasite among patients for ten years, well design oral interviews and structured questionnaires were used to get necessary information pertaining to the study. Pearson's product moment correlation and the students't' test for significance was employed to analyze the data to determine the strength of the relationship between weather parameters and frequency of malaria occurrence. Findings indicate that weather element which occurred naturally has a direct effect on malaria prevalence in the study area; findings show positive relationship between rainfall amount and malaria cases; an increase in amount of rainfall led to a decrease in malaria prevalence in the area .The correlation (rp) value of (6.63) between temperature and malaria cases shows that an increase in temperature values led to an increase in the frequency of malaria occurrence. Furthermore, the correlation value of (-4.32) between relative humidity and malaria cases shows that a decrease in relative humidity led to a decrease in malaria causative organism attack thus decrease in malaria occurrence. Based on the findings people are advised to sleep under mosquito treated net during high temperatures, clear stagnant water which are good breeding sites for mosquitoes, take anti-malaria vaccine and incorporate climatological information in urban planning, building designs as well as modernizing of old ones, since weather factors influences malaria incidence.

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    Psychosocial and Biomedical Management of Gender-based Sexual violence in South East, Nigeria: a 2-year Retrospective Study

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time25 September, 2018
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     The lack of confidentiality and psycho-social support to the victims who seek medical treatment in our health institutions prevent them from reporting the crime and, therefore from receiving appropriate care and support. This study was carried out using data collected from TAMAR Sexual Assault Referral Center (TAMARSARC) Enugu between April 2014 and March 2016.  Over the period reviewed, 472 clients were reached with services. Young women between the ages of 11-22 years were the most affected accounting for 50.8% of all cases. 92.2% of the clients reported rape/attempted rape whilst 4.7% and 3.2% reported sexual assault and domestic violence respectively. Of the 354 recognized perpetrators, 52 (14.7%) were family members and 302 (85.3%) were non-family members whilst for the 118 unrecognized perpetrators, 89 (75.4%) were gang raped and 29 (24.6%) could not remember the number of persons that raped them. Incidence of sexual violence was greater in urban (75.8%) than in rural areas (24.2%) and out of 37 (7.8%) cases charged to court, 5 (13.5%) were discharged, 7 (18.9%) were undergoing prosecution and only assailant (0.002%) had received a jail term of 14 years. Fifteen (15) pregnancies had resulted from all cases, two (2) HIV infections were detected on routine screening of all victims and one death in a 9 years old girl that was raped by a HIV positive male. The strategic partnership between TAMARSARC and Enugu state government demonstrated the effectiveness of an integrated approach in addressing the psycho-social, legal and health needs of sexually assaulted women and girls.

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    Choice of Anesthesia for Repair of Adult Inguinal Hernias in Enugu (Short Communication).

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time25 September, 2018
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    Choice of anesthesia for repair of 82 adult inguinal hernias in Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South- East of  Nigeria; was assessed from January 2015 to December, 2016. Traditionally, anesthesia for inguinal hernia repair has been general anesthesia. Regional anesthesia (spinal/epidural) been generally reserved for patients with poor cardio-respiratory status and local anesthesia usually for those whose age, infirmity or fear make other forms of anesthesia hazardous. Over the past 40-50 years, there has been a paradigm shift from this traditional approach such that today loco-regional anesthesia especially local anesthesia is considered the gold standard. This study found that the preferred choices of anesthesia by hernia surgeons in this tertiary health institution for repair of adult inguinal hernia is loco-regional with spinal anesthesia at 46% and local anesthesia at 40%. General anesthesia was used in only 14% of cases. The extensive use of loco-regional anesthesia improved day case inguinal hernia surgery world-wide with all its benefits.

December Edition, 2018 (Vol. 6 No. 4)

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    Study on the Coagulation of Bakery Wastewater Using Bambara nut (Vigna Subterranea) Husk

  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time18 December, 2018
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    This research investigated the study on the coagulation of bakery waste water using bambara nut husk. It equally studied the effect of process parameters like temperature (30-360C), time (10-50mins), coagulant concentration (400-1000mg/l) and pH (2-8) on the total suspended solid content (TSS) of the bakery waste water. Proximate analysis of the coagulant and characterisation of the bakery wastewater were done.  The coagulation study was done using the jar test method based on standard bench scale Nephlometric method for the examination of water and wastewater. It was observed that increase in temperature did not favour the coagulation process. Increase in time from 10 to 50mins decreased the TSS of the wastewater. Increase in coagulant concentration from 400-800mg/l decreased the TSS of the wastewater, but further increase to 1000mg/l increased the TSS. Increase in pH from 2-6 decreased the TSS, but further increase to 8 increased it. Characterisation of the wastewater after the coagulation shows that lead and nitrate were completely removed after the treatment, while chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand were reduced. It was equally observed that dissolved oxygen which was 22.5mg/l before the treatment was increased to 55.1mg/l after the treatment.

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    Psychosis in Poorly Controlled Diabetes Mellitus. A Case Study

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time18 December, 2018
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    The processes through which patients in hyperglycaemic state among diabetes manifest psychosis is unclear; and it is not uncommon for clinicians to expose them to antipsychotics, when in fact, the psychosis can resolve with anti-diabetic control measures. The first case was a 67-year-old diabetic patient who was non-compliant with his medications and presented with 2 weeks history of irrational speech, poor sleep, and commanding auditory hallucination. Systemic examinations were not remarkable, laboratory tests were normal except urgent random blood glucose = 412 mg/dl. Fasting blood glucose values during the first 3 days of admission were 197mg/dl, 202mg/dl and 180mg/dl respectively. The second case was a 49-year-old widow, with poorly controlled diabetes, who presented with 3 days history of aggressive behaviour, disorientation, restlessness, visual hallucination, poor attention/concentration, and impaired memory. Other systemic examinations were essentially normal, and the only significant laboratory investigation was random blood glucose of 380mg/dl. Fasting blood glucose during the first 3 days of admission was 210 mg/dl, 197mg/dl and 170mg/dl respectively. Both cases resolved without use of antipsychotic drugs. Control of elevated blood glucose is crucial in treatment of diabetes with psychosis. Further research to elucidate the pathophysiology of psychosis in hyperglycaemia among diabetics is paramount.

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    Magnesium Status in Apparently Healthy Adult Nigerians: Association with Degree of Obesity

  • subjectCategory: Physiology
  • access_time18 December, 2018
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    Magnesium deficiency is reported to be associated with increased risk of chronic diseases including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus; however its prevalence among the general population in our setting has not been well studied. We aimed to determine the prevalence of magnesium deficiency, as measured by plasma magnesium level, and its relationship with body weight status in a group of apparently healthy adult Nigerians. A cross-sectional study involving 120 apparently healthy adults aged 18 years and above. The study subjects were categorized according to BMI into two groups: 48 overweight/obese subjects (BMI ≥ 25kg/m2) and 72 normal weight subjects (BMI < 25kg/m2). Plasma magnesium level was measured and hypomagnesemia was defined as plasma magnesium < 0.75mmol/L. There was 11.7% overall prevalence of hypomagnesemia. The prevalence of hypomagnesemia was greater among overweight/obese compared to normal weight subjects. Plasma magnesium levels were significantly lower in the overweight/obese subjects as compared to the normal weight subjects (0.77 ± 0.05 vs. 0.83 ± 0.11 mmol/L, p <0.05). An inverse association was observed between plasma magnesium levels and degree of obesity as measured by BMI (r = -0.23, p < 0.05). We conclude that magnesium deficiency is relatively common among the study subjects; with obesity being a significant risk factor. We recommend further studies that will determine the clinical significance and health implications of that in our setting. We also recommend large scale study that will establish an evidence-based local reference interval that will allow more accurate assessment of the prevalence of magnesium deficiency among our local population.

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    Physico-functional Properties of Some Bean Varieties ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.), as Influenced by Maturation

  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time18 December, 2018
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    A study of seed development and maturation in edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was conducted on field-grown plants. The main objective of this present research was to investigate the physico-functional (bulk and true densities of the flour; hydration capacity, hydration coefficient, hydration index, swelling capacity, swelling coefficient, swelling index, moisture uptake, electrical conductivity and pH) properties of bean seeds during maturity, in view of designing necessary processing and handling equipment, and formulation of complementary foods. Physico-functional properties of three bean varieties (iron, honey and butter brown) were evaluated in three maturity stages of 14, 21, and 28 days after peak anthesis (DAPA). Results of the study showed large variability in all the physico-functional properties of the three bean varieties during maturation. There were significant (P ≤0.05) differences among selected seed lots in most of the parameters, and maximum seed functional quality was recorded at 28 DAPA. As maturation increased from 14 DAPA to 28 DAPA for the iron, honey and butter brown bean seeds, the hydration capacity increased from 0.230 to 0.469 (g/seed), 0.108 to 0.253 (g/seed) and 0.101 to 0.244 (g/seed).  Hydration coefficient increased from 1.86 to 2.043%, 1.77 to 1.93% and 1.71 to 1.91%. Hydration index increased from 0.029 to 0.027, 0.026 to 0.109 and 0.024 to 0.109. Swelling coefficient increased from 1.4 to 1.74%, 1.91 to 2.65% and 2.167 to 3.125%; while the swelling index increased from 0.013 to 0.025, 0.031 to 0.053 and 0.038 to 0.071. Conclusively, the three bean varieties investigated have great potential as functional agents in the food processing industries. The results of this study are expected to be useful for plant breeders, consumers, and the food processors.

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    Exploring HIV Self-Stigma in Enugu State Nigeria

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time18 December, 2018
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    World Health Organization cites fear of stigma as the main motive behind people's reluctance to get tested for HIV/AIDS, disclose their HIV status, take ARV drugs and access other ART services.  This study explored self-stigma and factors influencing it among persons living with HIV/AIDS in Enugu State.  This was a cross-sectional study, involving eight hundred and forty adults living with HIV/AIDS accessing care across eight health facilities.  Data was done using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Frequencies and proportions were generated. Chi square test of statistical significance was used to determine the factors that influenced self-stigma. Multivariate analysis using binary logistic regression was utilized to predict the probability of the occurrence of the outcome variable. 69.2% of respondents were classified as having high self-stigma. 95.2% had disclosed their HIV status. Residence in rural areas (AOR 0.807, 95% CI: 0.580 - 1.122) and socio-economic status (AOR 1.415, 95% CI: 1.0- 1.9) predicted high self-stigma. As low socio economic status and area of residence were found to influence self-stigma among respondents in the study, there is a call for persons living with HIV/AIDS to be economically empowered by the government with more emphasis on those residing in rural areas.

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    Effect of Drying on Rheological Properties of Yam Flours

  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time18 December, 2018
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    The effect of drying on rheological properties of yam flours was studied. Five varieties of yam flours namely white yam (Dioscrea rotundata), Three leave yam (Dioscorea dumetorum), purple yam (Dioscorea aalata) Water yam (Dioscorea alata), yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis) dried under three drying methods(oven, solar and sun drying methods) were used for the study. Results revealed that white yam, purple yam, three leave yam, water yam and yellow yam recorded viscosity ranges of 80 – 275kpa, 125 – 437kpa, 155 – 468kpa,89 – 563kpa and 113 – 471kpa respectively. In the same order, under sun, the yam varieties had viscosity range of 179 –349kpa,156 – 329kpa, 176 -416kpa, 83 – 233kpa, and 85 – 176kpa while under solar drying method white yam had viscosity range of 133 – 263kpa, purple yam, three leave yam, water yam and yellow recorded 184 – 442kpa, 204 -518kpa, 115 – 236kpa, and 95 – 274kpa respectively. The viscosity obtained for the yam varieties under different drying methods shows that their flours could be use as stabilizers or modifiers to enhance product in food industry. The analysis of variance on the effect of drying temperature and drying method on pasting behaviour of yam varieties showed no significant different at 5% level of probability for the drying temperature while there is significant difference in the drying methods of the yam varieties (p > 0.05).Five percent (5%) level of probability is a specified ἀ or p – value at which the significance of a given null hypothesis is adjudged after statistical analysis.

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    Effect of Varying Temperatures, Mixing Speeds and Time of Reaction with Catalyst on Biodiesel Production from Waste Palm Oil

  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time18 December, 2018
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    Waste palm oil (WPO) has proved to be a source of feedstock for producing biodiesel using the transesterification method. In this work, WPO collected from restaurants were converted to biodiesel using transesterification method. The effects of temperatures varying from 45 to 65OC, mixing speeds varying from 600 to 1000rpm and time of reaction varying from 45 to 120 minutes with catalyst concentration of 1.6% weight of the WPO sample and methanol to oil ratio of 6:1 were studied to determine waste palm oil biodiesel (WPB100) yield.  The experiment was designed using Central Composite Design of Design Expect software (6.0.6 version) and analysed using response surface methodology (RSM) showed optimal biodiesel yield of 94% at the combinations of 59.80C reaction temperature, 103.15minutes time of reaction and 874.91rpm mixing speed. The quadratic model developed with the software indicated R-square value of 0.9690 which implies strong correlation between the experimental and predicted yields. Also, amongst the varied variables, temperature of operation had the highest significant impact on yield whereas the interaction between temperature of reaction and mixing speed had least impact. The cetane number (CN), calorific value (CV), density, kinematic viscosity (KV), and moisture content (M.C) of the biodiesel produced were 57, 40.56MJ/kg, 0.88g/mL, 5.2mm2/sec and 0.03% respectively which are within American Standard for Testing Material (ASTM) for biodiesel. The work concluded that reaction temperature and time of operation are more impactful on biodiesel yield than mixing speed. The quadratic model fitted by Design Expect statistical software successfully predicted the expected yield.

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    Twin Discordance Secondary to Suspected Spontaneous Superfetation: A Case Report.

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time18 December, 2018
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    Spontaneous conception of an additional fetus in the presence of an ongoing pregnancy is quite rare and remains a puzzle in the human reproductive cycle. Although several theories have been proposed, none has satisfactorily explained the mechanism of this deviation from the natural human reproductive events. We report a case of a set of twin with dichorionic placentation, discordant birth weight, maturation and estimated Gestational Age (to the tune of 4 weeks) necessitating variation in their neonatal care plan. Mother did not employ any form of Assisted Reproductive Technique (ART) in their conception. The authors diagnosed possible twin superfetation. Its rarity in human prompted this report as an addition to the few existing reports and also to raise a higher index of suspicion among clinicians concerned with the delivery and care of newborns.

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    Cases of Brought in Dead (BID) in the Accident and Emergency Department of a Tertiary Hospital in Enugu, Nigeria: A Retrospective Study

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time18 December, 2018
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    Health Services in many developing countries like Nigeria are weak and various mortality rates are high.  Mortality statistics on BID in Nigeria are few and seem to study mainly trauma relates cases.  This study was aimed at assessing the epidemiology of cases of BID in the A & E of a tertiary hospital in Enugu.  Retrospective analysis of all cases of BID in a new A & E unit over a 24-month period was done from the hospital records. The results showed that 382 major medical and surgical emergencies out of 8950 patients that presented were seen over the period.  There were 88 cases (23.03%) of major emergencies recorded as BID. They were 48 males and 40 females.  19 cases of BID were accident related (21.59% of BID).  BID presenting to our A & E is high relative to our major emergencies.  We must conduct research to understand this phenomenon more.

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    Generalized Transmuted -Generalized Rayleigh Distribution: Its Properties and Application (SHORT COMMUNICATION)

  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time18 December, 2018
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    Several models have been proposed for modelling the lifetime data for reliability analysis. The performances of these models have been evaluated by fitting the models with the datasets and then compare the value with the values of the existing models. This study proposed a new model that enhance the modelling of data in reliability studies and the performance of this proposed model was evaluated by comparing it with others related models, these models include Weibull-Burr type X, Exponentiated Generalized-Burr type X and Burr type X model. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) of each model was calculated using the dataset contained about 30 units of observations. Results show that the AIC of the proposed model was found to be 10.00 while the AIC of the other three competitive related models are 192.34, 367.45 and 367.87. The result of the analysis revealed that the proposed model (Generalized Transmuted-Generalized Rayleigh) with smallest AIC had the best performance when compared to the other three competitive related models, hence  the model can better be used in reliability analysis as well as in analysing skewed datasets.

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    Evolution of Bio-degradable Materials in Composite and Developmental Applications: Limitations and Future Prospects. (SHORT COMMUNICATION)

  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time18 December, 2018
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    Bio-degradable materials have been studied in many literature as a potential replacement for metallic and synthetic materials in view of the emerging environmental concerns. Part of its acclaimed advantage is its tendency to evolve cleaner climate and provide safe haven for future generations. The introduction of bio-fibre in many engineering applications is becoming popular as witnessed in the automotive component parts replacement and other useful area of engineering application. With the increasing integration of bio-fibre in composite formation, it is crystal clear that the availability of natural fibre for various engineering application may be hindered as a result of its declining production. In this paper, attempts were made to access the level of production of bio-fibre taking into consideration its competitive demand in climate mitigation. Part of the discussion in this work analysed the existing literature production volume of bio-fibre and the cellulose, lignin content in fibre as it constitutes mechanical and chemical barriers against pathogens. It is expected that this research work will project the broad impact of bio-fibres and proffer its better utilization options. Key of the conclusions drawn in this work reinforces the need to conserve natural fibres in the face of competitive demands.

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