Featured Papers

March Edition, 2018 (Vol. 6 No. 1)

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    EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR PREDICTING HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Osifeko MO, Odufuwa BO
  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time16 May, 2018
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    Several mathematical models have been proposed for predicting highways traffic noise on highways. Performance of these models depends on location of use, hence, the need for evaluation of existing models before adoption in any location. This study evaluates the predicting accuracy of four mathematical models towards predicting highways traffic noise in Ogun State. These models include Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN), Acoustical Society of Japan-Road Traffic Noise (ASJ RTN), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) model. Traffic noise was measured using a Sound Level Meter on four major highways. Traffic data consisting of traffic volume, type of vehicle, speed, distance and road characteristics were collected and used as input to evaluate the models. Results show that the Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) of the CRTN model was found to be 0.37 while the value RLS90 model was found to be 0.32. In terms of two-sample t-test, the CRTN model had a value of 2.36 while the RLS90 model had a value of 2.97. The CNR and FHWA model had a RMSD value of 0.2 and 0.31 with a t-value of 2.15 and 2.62. The result of the analysis revealed that the CNR model had the best performance when compared to the CRTN, FHWA and RLS90 models, hence the model can be used as a reliable forecast tool for planning and activities aimed at mitigating highway traffic noise in the state.

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    ALTERNATIVE FUNCTIONALITY OF WOOD-WASTE THROUGH APPLIED BINDING MECHANISM OF UREA-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Ezeh EC
  • subjectCategory: Physical Sciences
  • access_time3 April, 2018
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    Sawdust, the major by-products of sawmills and an abundant wood-waste of ≤ 2mm particle size was used to produce particleboards through the binding mechanism of urea-formaldehyde, to minimize its potentials of posing environmental challenges, and study its suitability with urea-formaldehyde resin for the production of  less expensive particleboards of acceptable standard. A known mass of the sawdust (3g – 8g) was first blended with 20cm3 of molten paraffin wax, and then with 30cm3 of urea-formaldehyde resin. The blend was molded into board under electrically heated hydraulic press at 150oC and 10 tons for 4 min. The physico-mechanical properties of the particleboard, including water absorption, thickness swell, density, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, specific strength and hardness, were investigated using the conventional methods, and were found satisfactory with reference to the Bureau of Indian Standards and Australian standards for thin particleboards. The properties of the particleboards were dependent on the ratio of the sawdust to the urea-formaldehyde resin. The boards are easily produced and cost effective, and should be an inexpensive alternative for wood panel producers and users because, the end-use application of particleboard is subject to the properties, ease of preparation and cost.

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    EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE FROM PETROL FUELLED PORTABLE POWER GENERATORS USED IN COMMERCIAL AREAS

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Azodo AP, Omokaro I, Mezue TC, Owoeye FT
  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time3 April, 2018
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    Infrastructure deficit gaps in Nigeria’s electric power supply is prominent, affecting every sector of the nation’s economy ad-modum less productivity, lost and corrupt data, damaged equipment and poor power efficiency. Use of generators as alternative source of electrical power with its characteristic noise and vibration has serious health hazard and environmental impact. The intensity of noise from various generator used in small business enterprises (commercial centres) in Abeokuta metropolis was assessed using a digital sound level meter to determine the intensity of noise level from the generators. Sound emitting from each of the generators was measured from five different points. The associated noise levels at the five distances from the commercial user showed mean values of 109.86, 85.95, 83.09, 80.68 and 81.69 decibels taken at the exhaust, distances of one, two, three meters and closest distance of the generator from the commercial user respectively. Analysis of the measured generator noise loudness using the data obtained for noise level at different distances on typical noise level scale showed that 9.1, 100, 96.6 and 90.9 percents of the generators were very loud at noise at the exhaust and distances of one, two, three meters respectively. It was only at the generator exhaust that 90.9 percent there was uncomfortably loud. This high noise levels obtained necessitates acoustic muffling of the generators.

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    HAEMODIALYSIS AT ENUGU STATE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL ENUGU NIGERIA: 1ST YEAR EXPERIENCE

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Okafor UH, Nwoye EO, Ogbobe OA
  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time3 April, 2018
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    Renal replacement therapy plays a key role in the management of patients with kidney failure. In most economically disadvantaged nations including Nigeria, haemodialysis is the most available renal replacement therapy. Haemodialysis center was started at Enugu state university teaching hospital on 1st March 2016. The objective of the study is to analyze the activity of the center during the first year of its establishment. This is a retrospective cross sectional study. All the patients that were treated at the center from 1st March 2016 to 28th February 2017 were recruited for the study. Their clinical and laboratory data pre, intra and post-dialysis were entered into a spread sheet and analyzed using SPSS statistical package. A total of 108 patients were dialyzed with a male: female ratio of 1.5:1. The mean age was 46.2±18.1 years, most of the patients were Ibos and of low/middle socioeconomic status. The mean PCV was 22±0.037%, mean serum sodium was 129.8±8.6mmol/l, mean serum potassium was 4.9±0.10mmol/l, mean serum urea was 24.8±12.9mmol/l, and mean serum creatinine was 913.8±424.7umol/l. The month of March had the least(32) sessions of haemodialysis and September had the highest (66)number of sessions. 84.3% had haemodialysis for less than a month and only 4.8% had haemodialysis for at least 6 months. Majority of the patients (67%) had less than 5 sessions of haemodialysis. One (0.9%) patient and 5 (4.8%) patients used ateriovenous fistula and internal jugular catheter as vascular access respectively; others used femoral vein vascular access. Infection, hypertension, hypotension and bleeding were the common complications. One year operation of the haemodialysis at Enugu state university teaching hospital was remarkable; however patients were unable to sustain haemodialysis.

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    EVALUATION OF EFFICACY OF TEN HERBAL SPERM BOOSTERS USING MALE SWISS ALBINO MICE AS EXPERIMENTAL MODEL

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Iroanya OO, Adewole HA, Nwoko CL, Folarin OA, Adelabu MA
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time3 April, 2018
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    Infertility in humans has rapidly increased prompting researchers to screen herbal extracts and formulations to improve fertility. The aim of this project is to ascertain the efficacy of Addyzoa and some local herbal fertility enhancers on sperm and their effects on some biochemical parameters. Adult Swiss albino male mice were placed in 11 cages of 5 animals each. Animals in cage 1 were administered only water i.e. control group, group 2 was administered Addyzoa, an Ayurvedic fertility enhancer while animals in groups 3 to 11 received local herbal fertility enhancers at different concentrations for 45 days. On the 46th day, the animals were sacrificed. Some sperm and biochemical parameters were assayed. In groups 3, 6 and 11, the animals showed significant (P≤0.05) increase in sperm count while groups 6 and 11 exhibited significant (P≤0.05) increase in sperm motility compared to groups 1 and 2. Photomicrographs showed different sperm morphological aberrations. ALP levels of groups 3, 4 and 6 was significantly (P˂0.05) low while ALT concentration of groups 7 and 11 was significantly (P˂0.05) low compared to group 1. Group 1 showed significant (P˂0.05) increase in AST concentration compared to groups 7, 8 and 10. These results suggests that the herbal boosters administered to groups 3, 6 and 11 improved the quality and quantity of sperm possibly by enhancing asthenozoosermia, increased sperm formation thereby increasing oligozoospermia, supporting and  improving teratozoospermia and size thereby preventing DNA damage to sperms.

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    DETERMINATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF AFZELIA AFRICANA SEEDS.

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Eze OC, Igwillo UC.
  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time3 April, 2018
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    Selected physical properties of Afzelia africana seeds were determined at four moisture levels: 10.60%, 12.80%, 15.20% and 18.40% wet basis (w.b). The seeds were categorized in three batches according to their weights: Batch I (2g<m<2.99g), Batch II (2.99<m<3.99g) and Batch III (3.99<m³4.99g) respectively. As moisture content ranged from 10.60%-18.40 % (w.b), the mean values of length, width and thickness ranged from 21.782±0.91-25.225±1.11mm, 10.550±0.92-12.970±0.17mm and 7.946±1.03-10.607±0.82mm from batch I – III respectively. Arithmetic and geometric mean diameters, sphericity and projected area ranged from 13.570±0.43-15.823±0.41mm, 12.245±0.33-14.430±0.39mm, 57.80±0.07-75.60±0.03% and 186.218±28.42-256.037±12.98mm2 respectively. Unit mass, unit volume, aspect ratio and surface area ranged from 2.545±0.23g-4.515±0.09g, 7.897±0.89-12.795±1.03cm3, 49.246±5.37-51.519±1.97% and 467.285±25.72-657.734±35.59mm². Porosity, true and bulk densities ranged from 41.851±10.57-45.824±7.72%, 0.656±0.28-1.090±0.30g/cm3 and 0.305±0.08-0.431±0.18g/cm3 respectively. The highest mean value of coefficient of static friction (0.46±0.07) was recorded for iron steel structural surface for batch III, batches I and II recorded the lowest (0.32±0.04) for plywood surface. The highest mean value of angle of repose (32.1388o) was recorded for plywood surface for batch I while the lowest 25.3569o was recorded for batch II on iron steel surface among the three batches.

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    ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERN IN TWO NIGERIAN TERTIARY HOSPITALS

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Okpara TC, Ugochukwu AI, Isah AO, Neboh EE
  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time3 April, 2018
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    Antibiotics are among the most widely used drugs to treat patients with various diseases in public and private health institutions. It`s use has been found to be associated with various degrees of antibiotic resistance leading to difficulty in managing these various morbidities. The resistance pattern has been found to co-relate strongly with the pattern of antibiotic use. The study is a retrospective study which aimed at studying the resistance pattern to various antibiotics in two Nigerian teaching hospitals located at different geographical areas of the country. The study aimed at determining the factors associated with increased resistance to antibiotics. The pattern of resistance was found to be higher in the rejoin with more frequent use of antibiotics and some recommendations were proposed as a measure of reducing antibiotic resistance to the barest minimum.

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    PRE-SLEEP CRYING IN INFANTS: THE PERCEPTION OF PARENTS IN THE SOUTH EASTERN REGION OF NIGERIA.

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Ndu IK, Manyike CP, Ekwochi U, Igbokwe OO, Edelu BO, Adimorah GN
  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time3 April, 2018
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    Crying describes a category of behavioral states and serves many purposes in infants, especially to shut out disturbing stimuli and it is of etiologic significance for eliciting appropriate care for infants. Children are usually unhappy about going to bed and sometimes react to sleepiness by crying. Therefore, they need sleep training in order to transition successfully to sleeping on their own. Sleep is important for both parents and their babies and serious consequences can arise from parental chronic sleep deprivation as a result of the infant’s inability to fall asleep his own. More efforts are required to create awareness about appropriate care of the crying infant and correct any harmful practices in our environment. This was a hospital based study carried out in the infant immunization clinics of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital Enugu over a six month period from October 2016 to March 2017. A total of five hundred and eleven respondents participated in the study. Among the respondents, 92.6% had experienced pre-sleep cry in their children. Seventy four percent would respond to the crying infant adjusting to sleeping alone by soothing and cuddling, 1.5% would give sedatives, while 0.6% would ignore the infant completely. We recommend that more efforts should be channeled towards counseling parents and caregivers about effective sleep training techniques so they can make informed choices and reduce the risk of future complications related to poor sleep training techniques.

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    IMPACT DAMAGE TO SELECTED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE FROM SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Igwillo UC
  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time3 April, 2018
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    An Impact Test Apparatus was developed to determine the impact damage and bruise parameters of five fresh agricultural produce, namely: banana (Musa spp), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), sweet potato (Ipomea batatas), cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) and lemon (Citrus limon) using Impact – Drop Height method. A constant impact energy of 0.9J – 4.5J was maintained as drop heights ranged from 0.20m – 1.00m. The bruise diameter, bruise depth, bruise width, bruise volume, bruise resistance and bruise susceptibility of banana ranged from 10mm – 18mm, 6mm – 8mm, 2mm – 4mm, 62.68mm3 – 300.87mm3, 0.014J/mm3 – 0.015J/mm3, 69.64mm3/J – 73.12mm3/J. That of tomato ranged from 10 – 26mm, 6 – 6.5mm, 2.1 – 5mm, 65.81 – 441.39mm3, 0.015 – 0.010J/mm3, 73.12 – 98.08mm3/J. That of sweet potato ranged from 8mm – 16mm, 4mm – 6mm, 2mm – 6mm, 33.43mm3 – 300.87mm3, 0.02J/mm3 – 0.014J/mm3, 37.14mm3/J – 66.86mm3/J. That of cassava tuber ranged from 10mm – 16mm, 3mm – 8mm, 2mm – 4mm, 31.34mm3 – 267.44mm3, 0.03J/mm3 – 0.02J/mm3, 38.82mm3/J – 59.43mm3/J. While that of lemon ranged from 0mm – 7.5mm, 0mm – 4.5mm, 0mm – 5mm, 0mm3 – 88.14mm3, 0J/mm3 – 0.05J/mm3 and 0mm3/J – 19.58mm3/J respectively. Results indicated that bruise parameters increased with impact energy. Tomato has the highest bruise susceptibility, followed by cassava tuber, banana, sweet potato, and lemon, but lemon has the highest bruise resistance. The results would be useful to food processors and engineers in designing packages to reduce impact damage to agricultural produce.

June Edition, 2018 (Vol. 6 No. 2)

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    NEUROLOGICAL ADMISSIONS AT ENUGU STATE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL: A 5-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Surveys of neurologic admissions into various Nigerian health institutions show an increasing burden of disorders such as stroke in our communities. Few studies have documented the pattern and mortality on neurologic admissions in South East Nigeria. The pattern and mortality of neurologic cases admitted into the medical wards of the Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital was determined. Classifications of medical disorders were grouped using ICD 10 coding system. The total number of neurologic disorders recorded in the case files was 1,031(28%). The commonest causes of neurologic admission were stroke-577(56%), coma of undetermined causes 87(15.3%) and central nervous system infections 84(8.1%). Infections were the commonest causes of admission below 40 years- 48(27.6%) while stroke was the most common disorder after 40 years.  Neurologic disorders accounted for 38% of medical ward mortality with a mortality rate of 26.5% (273/1031), most of which was due to stroke 57.1%(156/273).  Case fatality rates were highest for coma (50.6%), hepatic encephalopathy 15(36.6%) and hypertensive encephalopathy 10(29.4%). The case fatality rate for stroke was 156(27%). Mortality rates closely reflected admission rates in all cases except in infectious diseases. We concluded that stroke is by far the commonest cause of neurologic admission and death in a tertiary hospital in Enugu. Well-articulated public health educational programs will go a long way to reduce morbidity and mortality of neurologic disorders.

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    EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL, PROXIMATE AND NUTRITIVE POTENTIALS OF Cocos nucifera (COCONUT) SEEDS

  • subjectCategory: Biochemistry/Molecular Biology
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    The phytochemical, proximate, vitamins and mineral element composition of Coconut (Cocos nucifera) were investigated in this research. The phytochemical properties of the sample were screened qualitatively and also quantified and the result revealed a significant amount of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and reducing sugars while saponins, glycosides, soluble carbohydrate and terpenoids were found in trace amount, hydrogen cyanides not detected qualitatively. The proximate analyses of the Cocos nucifera sample was carried out using the methods described by Pearson and the results showed high level of crude fats 56.36±0.04% and carbohydrate 31.29±0.14%, a considerable amount of moisture and crude protein 8.33±0.03 and 7.53±0.05%, respectively and also, ash 2.43±0.03% and fibre 2.38±0.07%. This composition shows that the sample could be a good source of oil, carbohydrate, dietary fibre and protein. However, the methods outlined by AOAC, 2000 were used to determine the mineral composition of the Cocos nucifera seeds. The results revealed that the sample posses preponderance amount of mineral elements; magnesium 318.11±7.07 mg, calcium 25.87±0.09 mg, potassium 29.92±0.04 mg, sodium 16.92±0.06 mg, phosphorus 4.54±0.03 mg and copper 1.24±0.02mg per 100g dry weight respectively; with trace amounts of manganese 0.64±0.01 mg, zinc 0.76±0.06 mg and iron 0.62±0.01 mg. This implies that Cocos nucifera seeds no doubt is a good source of minerals despite the negligible amount of iron, zinc and manganese. The method of Association of Official and Analytical Chemists AOAC, 1990 was used for the vitamins analyses and the seed sample was also found to contain an appreciable amount of vitamin A 3.12±0.01 mg/100g, vitamin C 14.71±0.05 mg/100g, vitamin B2 1.76±0.41 mg/100g and vitamin B6 1.61±0.04mg/100g. Other vitamins analysed on the seed extract though found in trace amount were vitamin D, E, K, B1, B3, B5, B9 and B12. The results from the present study implicitly showed that Cocos nucifera seed is nutritionally potent and could be good for dietary supplements in human and animal nutrition.

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    A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PRESCHOOL AGED CHILDREN IN ENUGU URBAN, NIGERIA

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Reports on nutritional status of the preschool children in developing economies are very important and such studies require the use of World Health Organization (WHO) z-score system to enable international comparison. This study aimed to determine the nutritional status of preschool aged children in Enugu urban, South-East Nigeria. Four hundred and nine (409) preschool children aged 2-5 years were recruited from the schools using stratified multistage sampling method. Their anthropometry were measured, weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC)-for-age were computed. The z-scores were calculated using the WHO/z-score international reference standard. The overall mean weight-for-age (W/A), height-for-age (H/A), weight-for-height (W/H) and MUAC-for-age were 17.7 ±3.7kg, 105.3 ±10.0cm, 15.8±1.4kg and 16.5 ±1.4cm respectively. Their mean z-scores were 0.92, 0.99, 0.51 and 0.35 respectively. The prevalence of underweight, wasting, stunting, low MUAC based on W/A, H/A, W/H below -2 z score of the WHO standards were 17.2%, 10.1%, 21.4% and 1.9% respectively. The prevalence of obesity using W/H greater than 2 z scores was 5.6%. The peak age incidence of malnutrition using all indices of nutritional status was 4 years. There is a high prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children in Enugu urban, Nigeria. Institution and implementation of urgent nutritional intervention programme targeting this age group is necessary to reduce this high prevalence in our environment and other developing countries.

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    KNOWLEDGE OF FLOOD CAUSES AND ITS INFLUENCING FACTORS AS A PREREQUISITE FOR EFFECTIVE EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS IN A RURAL COMMUNITY OF KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

  • subjectCategory: Environmental Sciences
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Flood is one of the most devastating, frequently occurring and costliest natural hazard in the world. The establishment of early warning systems which could be a step in the right direction towards reducing this menace could be limited by the level of knowledge of the causes. This study was conducted to assess the social factors that could affect the efficiency of early warning systems using their respective relationships with the knowledge on flood causative factors in a rural community of Kogi State, Nigeria. A  cross  sectional  study  was conducted  among  325 households  in  Oforachi community using quantitative  method  of  data  collection.  Pearson’s Chi Square Measure of Association and student t-test were used to assess the respective associations of the social factors with the level of knowledge using STATA/SE statistical software version 13.1 at 95% confidence level. The results showed that 8.00 % of the respondents had fair knowledge, 80.92% had good knowledge while, 11.08% had excellent knowledge of the causes of flood. The factors that influenced the knowledge level of the respondents in decreasing order of associations are Age, Education, Occupation, Flood experience, Marital Status and Ward. The knowledge of these associating factors will be very instrumental for the development of effective early warning signals and non-structural flood control measures.

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    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF RB-LEACH WITH VARYING NUMBER OF REGIONS IN WSN

  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Network lifetime has been an area critically and most extensively researched in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) due to the finite energy in the deployed sensor nodes. Diverse routing protocols have been proposed for use in WSNs for the main purpose of extension of the network lifetime without the degradation in the network throughput and efficiency. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of RB-LEACH (a homogenous centralized routing protocol) deployed using different numbers of regions. The RB-LEACH has been implemented with 8 sub-regions and 12 sub-regions, which was compared with the performance of the RB-LEACH of 10 sub-regions. The result shows considerable improvement in the stability period of the network with a decrease in the number of sub-regions and vice versa.

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    EFFECTS OF BLENDED FERTILIZERS ON LEAF NUTRIENTS CONTENT OF MATURE CLONAL TEA IN KENYA

  • subjectCategory: Agricultural Sciences
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Fertilizer studies in Kenya tea industry have focused predominantly on compound NPK. These fertilizers cannot be easily manipulated for specific soils and tea clones. In this respect, Athi River Mining limited has produced Mavuno blended NPK fertilizers with calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). However, their application rates that would result in optimal nutrients uptake are lacking. This is the knowledge gap that this study sought to address. Therefore, the fertilizer blends were assessed for their effects on nutrients uptake at different rate in two sites. The sites were selected purposefully, one in the eastern and the other in the western tea growing areas. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) were used to select 36 trial plots in the two areas which were treated with three fertilizer types where one type was control, and four fertilizer application rates with one rate being a control. The trial was replicated three times. Leaf samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients content. The data were then subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Mstat C computer software package. Two leaves and a bud had higher nitrogen content (Timbilil 4.84%; Kagochi 4.53%) compared to deficient levels in mature leaf (Timbilil 2.26%; Kagochi 2.95%). This study has shown that supplementing the soil applied NPK fertilizers with calcium, magnesium and micronutrients resulted in better nutrients uptake.

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    CAUSES OF DELAYED PRESENTATION IN PATIENTS WITH HYDROCEPHALUS

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Hydrocephalus is one of the common neurosurgical conditions that present to neurosurgeons in our environment. Delay in presentation for neurosurgical care can result insignificant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is important to reduce morbidity and mortality in these patients. This study set out to determine the causes of delay in presentation of patients with hydrocephalus for treatment in our environment. A prospective cross-sectional study of all patients with hydrocephalus that presented between January 2012 and December 2014 was carried out. The relevant data were recorded prospectively in clinical summary forms and an electronic spreadsheet. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL) for statistical analyses. Of the 72 patients, 50 (69.4%) experienced a delay of >4 weeks from onset of symptoms to definitive presentation to the neurosurgeon. Occurrence of neurological deterioration in those that experienced delay was statistically significant compared to patients who did not experience delay (chi square χ2 = 2.967, p = 0.002). Of the 50 patients with delayed presentation, it was due to lack of fund in 29 (58%) patients, ignorance in 11 (15.3%), religious beliefs in 7 (9.7%) and delayed referral in 3 (6.0%) patients. Barriers exist that prevent early patient presentation for neurosurgical treatment of hydrocephalus. These are all preventable and efforts should be geared towards this.

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    PITUITARY ABSCESS MIMICKING PITUITARY MACROADENOMA: AN UNUSUAL SELLAR LESION (CASE STUDY)

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Pituitary abscess can be defined as an involvement of the pituitary gland by an intrasellar inflective process. Correct diagnosis is difficult before surgery. It is usually made unexpectedly at surgery or autopsy. The objectives include to draw attention of Neurosurgeons to its rarity so as to consider it in the list of differential  diagnosis of sellar lesions, offer appropriate and optimal treatment and finally to review the literature of the subject matter.  We report a sixty-three year old right handed Bhutanese referred from a Government hospital in Bhutan with recurrent intermittent headache and vomiting of two years and one week duration respectively. He was in apparent good health prior to onset of symptoms and there was no identifiable aetiology. Physical and neurological examination was unremarkable. MRI revealed a sellar lesion with parasellar extension suspected to be pituitary macroadenoma.  Patient had microsurgical trans-sphenoidal drainage of the abscess after resurcitation and optimization. Pituitary abscess was diagnosed intra-operatively. Patient was placed on antibiotics and was discharged home on a stable condition. Microbiology (culture + AFB) was negative and histology revealed a pituitary abscess in a probably existing pituitary adenoma. In conclusion, pituitary abscess still remains rare and potentially life-threatening. Diagnosis before surgery is difficult.  It should be entertained in the differential diagnosis in patients with hypopituitarism with sellar or parasellar mass.

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    EVALUATION OF NUTRITIONAL AND ANTI-NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITIONS OF LEAVES OF GINGKO BILOBA (MAIDEN HAIR) TREE FOUND IN NIGERIA

  • subjectCategory: Biochemistry/Molecular Biology
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Ginkgo biloba (GB) leaves and extracts have been recognized worldwide for its renowned nutritional and medicinal properties. GB tree is highly grown and used in Asian and South American countries unlike Nigeria. In this study, we examined the nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of GB leaves (whole dried, and aqueous and ethanol extracts) grown in Nigeria. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method was used to determine the proximate and vitamin compositions while Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to analyze the minerals. Anti-nutrients analysis was done using gas chromatography. The results of analyses on whole dried leaves showed that the nutritional composition was high in carbohydrate (59.70+1.02mg/100g) and energy value (287.00+2.59Kcal/g) and low in protein (6.65+0.38mg/100g), lipid (2.40+0.14mg/100g), fibre (2.50+0.21mg/100g) and moisture (15.65+0.38mg/100g). High concentrations was also observed for vitamins A (79.75+9.05), C (79.20+2.56) and E (59.31+2.84) while vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and B12  (1.53+0.04, 2.98+0.62, 2.44+0.25, 3.57+0.24 and 0.28+0.01 mg/100g) respectively, were found in lower concentrations. The mineral analysis also showed high concentrations in macro minerals especially calcium and magnesium (24.620+0.410 and 18.450+0.28mg/100g) followed by phosphorous (4.896+0.003mg/100g), potassium (4.332+0.000mg/100g), and sodium (2.340+0.001mg/100g). The concentrations in micro minerals were iron (6.667+0.003mg/100g), zinc (1.851+0.001mg/100g), manganese (0.626+0.025mg/100g), copper (0.640+0.000mg/100g) and selenium (0.391+0.003mg/100g). However, the absence of molybedenum (Mo) in the leaves was observed. The calcium/phosphorous and sodium/potassium ratios were 5.029+0.087 and 0.540+0.000 mg/100g respectively. The anti-nutrients analysis of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaf showed low concentrations of phytate, oxalate and tannin. The low concentrations observed are considered to be non-toxic to man. These investigations have revealed the nutritional potentials of Ginkgo biloba leaves grown in Nigeria. The findings therefore, will be useful for nutritional and medical practice in Nigeria and beyond for maintenance of good health of individuals.

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    PAEDIATRIC MORTALITY AND AUTOPSIES IN ENUGU STATE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL, ESUTH/PARKLANE, ENUGU, NIGERIA: A 5- YEAR REVIEW

  • subjectCategory: Clinical Sciences
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Autopsy has traditionally been the criterion for determining cause of death and has played a major role in medical education and quality control. World over autopsies are carried out to determine cause(s) of death or to confirm the pathological processes that were suspected to be deranged prior to demise. They are relevant in guiding genetic counseling and helping families that are grieving. Despite these uses and applications, autopsy rates have declined globally. This study was undertaken to identify the in-patient mortality and autopsy rate in children at the Enugu State University Teaching Hospital ESUTH/Parklane, Enugu Nigeria. The report is a retrospective review of all the deaths among the hospitalized children from 1st January 2013 to 31st December 2017. Relevant information was extracted from the hospital records of all paediatric in-patients. Autopsy reports of all paediatric autopsies were pulled from the Histopathology department of ESUTH/Parklane. Information extracted from the autopsy reports and the hospital records were recorded in the proforma. Out of 11,570 children that were admitted during the period under review, 786 (6.79%) paediatric deaths were recorded, of which 423 (53.8%) were males and 363 (46.2%) were females; giving a male: female ratio of 1.17: 1. Out of the 786 in-patient paediatric deaths, only 3 (0.4%) autopsies were conducted. We concluded that despite the importance of autopsies, paediatric autopsies are not routinely performed in our environment and new strategies are needed to increase autopsy rates.

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    INDUSTRIAL SAFETY IN ELEVATOR INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE: ANALYSIS OF INDUSTRIAL REPORTS IN NIGERIA. (Short Communication)

  • subjectCategory: Engineering
  • access_time27 June, 2018
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    Elevators installation demands a high safety requirement and manpower training. Any noticeable fault in the elevator affects not only the operations in the industries but also trigger high fatality rate among workers. In order to maintain a hitch free operation in high rise building, an elevator must be frequently and appropriately maintained to sustain its operational efficiency. In this study, attempts were made to analyse the operational performance of elevators in Nigeria with focal point on existing data domiciled in major industrial players. Key of the results emanating from this research indicates that 49% of serious injury was as a result of accidental fall during installation of elevators with high mortality rate between 2001-2006. Further investigation revealed that practicable maintenance method particularly risk based inspection must be rejuvenated with strong political will from government to enforce basic tenet of industrial safety.

September Edition, 2018 (Vol. 6 No. 3)

No papers under this edition

December Edition, 2018 (Vol. 6 No. 4)

No papers under this edition

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