Determination of sex and living stature are key components of the biological profile for the personal identification of individuals. There is limited literature describing such investigation among adult Nigerians. The present study was carried out to develop regression models to estimate living stature and reliably predict sex from percutaneous anthropometric dimensions of the hand in a contemporary adult Nigerian population in Lagos. To derive the regression models, a total of nine (9) anthropometric measurements were recorded for two hundred and twenty-two (222) adult Nigerians (Male 115, Females 107) ranging from 18-65 years of age among them were staff and students of College of Medicine of the University of Lagos and Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba. The direct measurements taken were Hand length, Palm length, Hand breathes, Wrist width, and Digit lengths which included thumb, index, middle, ring, and little fingers. The result of this present study recorded a significant relationship between gender and stature determination using hand dimensions (p<0.001) as males recorded a mean of 176.49±7.4cm and female recorded a mean of 166.36±7.1cm. Together with stature, every other parameter showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between males and females. Results for correlation between hand parameters and stature were statistically significant (p<0.01) as different variables showed different degrees and strength of association ranging between 0.411 to 0.625 for left hand and 0.467 to 0.587 for right-hand measurements. The weakest correlations were observed in thumb length, little finger, and wrist width respectively on the right hand while thumb length and wrist width showed the weakest correlation on the left hand. Regression formulae for reconstructing stature were developed for each of these parameters through simple and multiple linear regressions for stature and logistic regression models were generated for sex estimation with a sectioning point at 0.5. Hand dimensions can be used in Sex and stature determination in medico-legal cases if the need arises. These derived equations, thus, provided a new tool for standard in forensic science in medico-legal practice.
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element needed for normal development and physiological processes in the body. However, chronic exposures or consumption of Mn can cause neurotoxicity in humans to affect balance and motor coordination. Quercetin is a polyphenolic flavonoid contained in some fruits and its association with the management of motor neurodegenerative disorders is yet to be fully understood. Hence, this is present study is aimed at investigating the efficacy of Quercetin on manganese-induced cerebellar damage of adult mice. Forty (40) healthy BALB/c male mice weighing between 20-25grandomly selected into five groups were used for the study. Behavioral, histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses were carried to validate our hypothesis that Quercetin is neuroprotective. Manganese exposed mice exhibited increased latency of turn (LOT) when compared to the control group in parallel bar test. There was a significant decrease in the LOT in all groups that received Quercetin when compared with the manganese exposed group. Also, when using the grip strength test, manganese exposed mice exhibited decreased grip strength when compared to the control group and a significant increase in Quercetin grip strength when compared with manganese exposed group. Histological results also revealed that there were little or no disrupted neurons in the granular, molecular and purkinje layer of the cerebellum. Immunohistochemical results also showed that the normal control and Quercetin-treated mice showed no expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) when compared to the manganese-exposed mice with shrunken morphology. Markers of oxidative stress were significantly different in the experimental animals when compared to the control and Quercetin treated mice. This study, therefore, revealed that Quercetin may have an antioxidant effect on the oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in the cerebellum thereby ameliorating the exhibited abnormal motor coordination caused by prolonged exposure to manganese.
Diabetes and thyroid disorders have been shown to mutually influence each other because of the role of the thyroid gland in the regulation of body metabolism. This work is therefore designed to study the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Adansonia digitata (baobab) on the thyroid gland of alloxan-induced diabetes. Twenty-eight Wistar rats, weighing 120g to 195g were divided into seven groups (n=4). Sham control, Diabetes control, Diabetes + Low dose, Diabetes + High dose, Diabetes + metformin, Low dose, and High dose. Diabetes was induced with a single dose of 150mg/kg alloxan monohydrate and animals were treated with Adansonia digitata for 14 days. This study indicated that the leaf extract of Adansonia digitata increase serum triiodothyronine levels and reversed the histological damage to the thyroid gland. Therefore, Adansonia digitata could be used to manage metabolic dysfunctions in the diabetic thyroid gland
Impressions of shoe and footprints are commonly found in crime scenes. Examination of these prints provide useful insights in crime scene investigation. This study attempts to determine genderusing discriminant function models of shoe and footprints dimensions in a Cross River State population. A total sample size of 260 subjects, (145 females and 115 males) were taken. Shoe and footprints parameters were taken by first, making an outline on white A4 paper smeared with removable ink. Followed by highlighting the various landmarks of foot lengths (from hill to first, second, third, fourth and fifth toe) and breadths (at ball and hill). This results showed that shoe and footprints dimensions recorded statistical significant difference (p < 0.05) as seen in the outcome of independent sample t-test for sexual dimorphism for right shoe and footprints. Moreso, the analysis of paired sample test between the left and right shoe and footprints dimensions showed statistical significant difference (P<0.05) in most of the parameters except LT3, LT4 and LT5.Group centroids which is a function of group membership with cut off functions for the males and females are 0.650 and -5.16 respectively, canonical discriminant function showed skewness with a cluster of the male and female determine sex tilting to the opposite direction respectively. This present study has demonstrated the utility and precision of sex determination models developed from shoe and footprints dimensions. Therefore, this study has provided baseline data upon which further studies will thrive. Hence, this data will be useful to a forensic expert saddled with investigations involving human identity.
Achieving a perfect body type and structure has become imperative for many athletes all over the world. The quest to achieve this has led to the abuse and incessant use of steroids among mesomorphic athletes without considering the health risk. Mesomorphic athletes in Calabar metropolis (Cross River State) have little or no proper education or awareness on the use and adverse effects of steroids which can be dangerous to their health. The present study aimed to determine the awareness level on the use of steroids as well as the harmful effects following its use among mesomorphic athletes in Calabar metropolis. Questionnaires were used for data collection; these were distributed randomly to 85 respondents; the identities of the respondents were anonymous. Out of the 85 respondents, 72(84.7%) were male, while 13(15.3%) were female. The dominant age group was within the age range of 18-23 which constitute 62.4% of the respondents.Responses revealed that 72(84.7%) of the respondents had little knowledge on the use of steroids and its effects, while 13(15.3%) had no knowledge on the use of steroids. 28(32.9%) respondent used steroids for muscle development. 8(28.6%) of steroid users used it on daily basis while 15(53.6%) used steroid 3 times per week. 12(42%) of steroid users were still willing to continue the use of steroid for muscle developments despite the health challenges associated with the use of these drugs. The side effects mentioned by steroid users includes psychological problems such as aggressiveness and mood swings which was 3(25%) and 1(8.3%) respectively; Liver diseases was 2(16.7%); Low libido was 2(16.7%); Cardiovascular problems such as chest pain and chest burn was 1(8.3%) and 1(8.3%) respectively; Muscular problem such as muscle pain was 1(8.3%) and skin folding was 1(8.3%). The use of steroids is prevalent in young adult males with very little awareness of the adverse effects of steroid use among mesomorphic athletes in Calabar Metropolis.
Adansonia digitata (Ad) also known as the baobab tree is very characteristic of the Sahelian region and belongs to the Malvaceae family. Our study aims to evaluate the possible therapeutic potential of Adansonia digitata leaf extract in the pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty-six (36) Wistar rats were randomly divided into 9 groups of four rats per group at the end of two weeks' acclimatization. Group(g) 1(control group) received 0.1ml/kg/bw normal saline/14days, g2 (Diabetes negative control) received alloxan (150mg/kg)/2days, g3 (Low dose) received 150mg/kg/bw Alloxan + 200mg/kg/bw Ad extract g4 (Medium dose) received 150mg/kg/bw Alloxan +400mg/kg/bw Ad extract, g5 (High dose) received 150mg/kg/bw Alloxan +600mg/kg/bw Ad extract, g6 (Standard) received 150mg/kg/bw Alloxan + 150mg/kg/bw Metformin, g7 (Low dose) received 200mg/kg/bw Ad extract only, g8 (Medium dose) received 400mg/kg/bw Ad extract only and g9 (High dose) received 600mg/kg/bw Ad extract only. The animals were humanely sacrificed after 2 weeks of the experiment under ketamine anesthetic. Blood was collected via cardiac puncture for hormonal assay, after which a midline laparotomy was performed and the pancreas was harvested and fixed for histological studies. The study indicates that administration of Ad extracts reduced the weight of the animals in a dose-dependent manner temporarily reduced blood glucose, increased glucagon and insulin concentrations, but was unable to restore the diabetic pancreas to its normal state. This may be attributed to the high carbohydrate content of the extract and absence of phytonutrients like tannin. The findings show that the leaf extract of Ad could be a potential and effective therapeutic target for short-term blood sugar regulation.
This study investigated the adjuvant effect of anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory co-treatment on Isoniazid- induced seizure. A total of twenty (20) healthy adult Wistar rats, with an average weight of 210kg, were used and divided into five (5) groups of four(4) rats per group. Seizures were induced in the animals in groups 2, 3, 4, 5 using 300mg/kg isoniazid single dose p.o, while animals in group 1 served as a control group and were given 0.1ml of normal saline (placebo). Group 2 was the untreated (positive) seizure group, while animals in group 3 were treated with 5mg/kg diazepam and group 4 were treated with 50mg/kg hydrocortisone, those in group 5 were treated with a combination of 5mg/kg diazepam and 50mg/kg hydrocortisone for 5days. Sections of the hippocampus were immunohistochemically stained for astrocyte expression using the Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) marker. The seizure group exhibited positive immunoreactivity to GFAP with astrogliosis. Hydrocortisone and diazepam groups revealed restored normal astrocytes expression. The combined therapy provided a synergist effect depicted as retraction of most astrocytes. So, a combination of anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory agents should be considered in seizure management.
The uses of eco-friendly and biodegradable materials have been a key agenda for global advocacy. We explored the histological staining effect of Beta vulgaris (beetroot) extract on selected tissues of Wistar rats. Four healthy rats were sacrificed under ether anaesthesia. The liver, lung and brain were harvested and fixed in 10% neutral formal saline. The tissues were manually processed and stained using various procedures as follows: Sections A (Haematoxylin and Eosin), B (Beetroots extract alone), C (Beetroots extract and Eosin), and D (Beetroots extract, Eosin and vinegar as mordant). The beetroots extract alone exhibited haematoxylin acidophilic- like effect on the selected tissues. The extract and eosin combined fairly stained the cellular features compared with the routine H and E stain. An improved effect was observed in sections stained with the extract, eosin and vinegar as (mordant). The extract showed specificity for the lungs tissue. Beetroot extract can be considered as an alternative for Haematoxylin in the routine H and E histological staining technique and may require mordant as stain enhancer some tissues particularly for demonstrating the lungs.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) the most common form of dementia in the elderly is a neurodegenerative disease that affects 47 millions of people worldwide. The first treatments against Alzheimer’s disease are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; however, these medications are associated with many side effects. Buchholzia coriacea seed popularly called "wonderful kola" because of its usage in traditional medicine to treat variety of illnesses. It's also called memory nut because its suspected to enhance memory and cognition. In this study , we investigated the efficacy of Buchholzia coriacea seeds (Aqueous, ethanolic, ethyl acetate & n-hexane fractions) against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in A total of 49 Wistar rats (190 -230g) were used and a total of 7 groups (n=7). Scopolamine (1mg/kg i.p), an amnesic drug was used for impairing memory. 100 mg/kg of each Buchholzia coriacea seed fractions were evaluated for amnesic activity by Morris water maze and Y maze memory model. Donepezil (5mg/kg) was used as standard drug. Animals were sacrificed after 14 days and evaluation of biochemical parameters was done viz Malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), reduced Glutathione (GSH), Catalase (CAT). Histopathological analysis was done via H&E stain. All fractions mitigated the neurodegeneration seen in scopolamine alone treated group except for ethyl acetate fraction. Treatment with Buchholzia coriacea fractions significantly decreased escape latency and increased number of crossing for Morris water maze while % alternation was increased in Y maze. The aqueous and hexane fractions did better than the others. The fractions increased the activity of SOD, GSH and CAT while decreasing MDA. These results indicated that the seeds of Buchholzia coriacea might be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in addition to its already established medicinal properties.
Background: Lead poisoning has been implicated as one of the causes of renal impairment. This study explores the ability of Ethanol root extract of Mucuna pruriens (EREMP) to attenuate the effect of lead poisoning on the kidney. Materials and method: Thirty-five female Wistar rats (180g), of 12 months old were divided into 7 groups (A-G) (n=5). Group A received normal saline, Group-B was exposed to lead poisoning; 120 mg/kg body weight of lead-acetate. C-D received (100 and 200) mg/kg body weight of EREMP only; the rationale was to observe the sole effect of the extract. Groups E and F animals were exposed to lead poisoning (120 mg/kg bw of lead acetate) simultaneously with 100 and 200 mg/kg bw respectively of EREMP. Group G received 120 mg/kg-bw of lead-acetate simultaneously with Vit E . All treatments were given orally and lasted for 21 days. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation 24 hours after the last administration. Blood was collected for renal function tests while the kidney was harvested and processed for routine H & E staining. Results: Mucuna pruriens root extract significantly reduced the urea and creatinine levels of rats in the treatment groups (E-F) compared to group B (p<0.05). The histological sections of the kidney of rats in group B (lead-acetate only) showed marked widespread renal tubular necrosis with mononuclear leucocytic infiltration of the renal interstitium when compared with groups E-F and group G treated with Vit E (100mg/kg-bw). Conclusion: Mucuna can be used to manage renal dysfunction.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology