Carpolobia lutea (cattle stick) is a shrub of 15ft height which is patronized traditionally for the management of reproductive dysfunction. However, its effect on reproductive system has not been scientifically reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Capolobia lutea root extract on male reproductive parameters in rabbits. Fifteen male rabbits (1.5 – 1.8kg) were randomly assigned into 3 groups: group 1: (control) received 1% tween 20, group 2 and group 3: received 40mg/kg and 80mg/kg of Carpolobia lutea root extract dissolved in 1% tween 20 respectively for 28 days. Blood samples were obtained pre and post-administration of the extract for the analysis of Serum Testosterone, Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone. The animals were weighed, sacrificed and dissected, while relative testicular weight and histology of the testes was done and caudal epididymis was used for spermiogram. Relative testicular weight showed dose dependent decrease and significant only at 80mg/kg body weight when compared with control. Sperm count increased significantly at 40mg/kg but not at 80mg/kg body weight. Sperm motility showed dose dependent increase and significant only at 80mg/kg body weight. Sperm viability had no significant differences. Sperm morphology showed that mid-piece had a dose dependent increase in abnormalities and significant only at 80mg/kg body weight, tail abnormalities showed significant decrease at 80mg/kg body weight when compared with control animals. Serum Testosterone, LH and FSH had no significant changes. Tissue histology of the testes expressed dose dependent damage. This study have shown evidence that, C. lutea root extract may not have a positive effect on the reproductive parameters. Thus more studies are needed to elucidate its suspected role in the enhancement of male reproductive function
Magnesium deficiency is reported to be associated with increased risk of chronic diseases including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus; however its prevalence among the general population in our setting has not been well studied. We aimed to determine the prevalence of magnesium deficiency, as measured by plasma magnesium level, and its relationship with body weight status in a group of apparently healthy adult Nigerians. A cross-sectional study involving 120 apparently healthy adults aged 18 years and above. The study subjects were categorized according to BMI into two groups: 48 overweight/obese subjects (BMI ≥ 25kg/m2) and 72 normal weight subjects (BMI < 25kg/m2). Plasma magnesium level was measured and hypomagnesemia was defined as plasma magnesium < 0.75mmol/L. There was 11.7% overall prevalence of hypomagnesemia. The prevalence of hypomagnesemia was greater among overweight/obese compared to normal weight subjects. Plasma magnesium levels were significantly lower in the overweight/obese subjects as compared to the normal weight subjects (0.77 ± 0.05 vs. 0.83 ± 0.11 mmol/L, p <0.05). An inverse association was observed between plasma magnesium levels and degree of obesity as measured by BMI (r = -0.23, p < 0.05). We conclude that magnesium deficiency is relatively common among the study subjects; with obesity being a significant risk factor. We recommend further studies that will determine the clinical significance and health implications of that in our setting. We also recommend large scale study that will establish an evidence-based local reference interval that will allow more accurate assessment of the prevalence of magnesium deficiency among our local population.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology