Intake of chemicals like monosodium glutamate (MSG), mostly used as a food seasoning, enhance the prevalence of leiomyoma. Leiomyoma has no known cure but Spondias mombin leaves have been in use, locally, in its management among Igbos of South-Eastern Nigeria. This work investigated the effect of S. mombin extract on hepatocytes after ingesting MSG. Twenty-one rats used in this study were divided into three groups of seven rats each and acclimatized. Two groups had fibroid after daily ingestion of 750mg/kg body weight of MSG for 28 days. Negative control had no fibroid. Positive control had fibroid and remained untreated. Group III, with fibroid, were continuously fed with the same dose of MSG for the next 28 days in addition to daily oral treatment with 250mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of Spondias mombin. Histological examinations of rat’s hepatocytes were performed on 2ndand 4thweeks, respectively, using two rats from each group for the next 28 days. Results indicated that the aqueous extract of S. mombin did not preserve the rat’s hepatocytes. Ingestion of S. mombin aqueous extract is deleterious to hepatocytes and could lead to other liver diseases. Results further indicated that continuous ingestion of MSG is destructive to hepatocytes. Care should be applied while ingesting an aqueous extract of S. mombin either as prophylaxis or as a chemotherapeutic agent. The result of this study had shown that oral intake of MSG has the potential of inducing uterine leiomyoma in experimental albino Wistar rats.
Momordica charantia is a vegetable that is used for nutritional and medicinal purposes. Despite its wide usage, information about the nutritional composition is scanty. In this study the nutritional value of M. charantia leaves and seeds was estimated using standard analytical procedures. Proximate composition of the leaves showed 14.39±0.37%minerals, 27.38±0.44% protein, 2.19±0.27% Lipids, 3.48±0.23% fiber, and 41.08±0.92% carbohydrate while the seeds contained 9.83±0.33%, 19.78±0.28%, 11.88±0.56%, 26.09±0.14%, 11.54±0.31% of the respective nutrients, indicating significant mean difference between the leaves and seeds (P<0.05). Benitez method was used for amino acid profiling; eighteen amino acids- Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Cys, Phe, Tyr, Thr, Val, Ala, Arg, Asp, Glu, Gly, His, Pro Ser and Trp were detected. Furthermore, the leaves contain twelve fatty acids of which six were unsaturated while the seeds contain seven fatty acids with four being unsaturated. Total saturated fatty acid in the leaves and seeds were 65.50% and 52.90% respectively. Dipalmitic acid and stearic acid were respectively the most predominant saturated fatty acids in the leaves and seed samples. The predominant unsaturated fatty acid in the leaves and seeds was oleic acid (8.30%) and (13.0%) respectively. The bitter component (momordicin) in the seed was estimated to be 3.8% (w/w) of the powdered dry sample. This result showed that M. charantia leaves and seeds could be an important green leafy vegetable and a source of nutrients to supplement other major sources
The toxicity of aqueous leaf extract of Acalypha wilkesiana in rats was investigated. Acute toxicity was carried out to determine the 𝐿𝐷50 of the plant’s extract. The extracts were administered orally up to a dose of 5000mg/kg for the 𝐿𝐷50 determination. No death was recorded during the acute toxicity test, which may imply that the plant is practically non-toxic. There was a progressive significant reduction (p<0.05) in serum sodium and potassium ions concentration with increasing doses of the extract above 10 mg/kg when compared with the control group in phase one. A significant change in urea was also observed at a dose of 100 and 1000mg/Kg respectively. In phase two, there was a slight increase in potassium, urea, and creatinine as well. Indeed, creatinine is known as a good indicator of renal function. The kidney functional indices: serum concentrations of creatinine, bicarbonate, and chloride were not significantly changed following acute administration of aqueous leaf extract (p<0.05) when compared with the control group in phase one. The observed progressive decrease in serum sodium and potassium ions as the dose of the extract exceeds 10mg/kg might be an indication of this extract could cause hyponatremia and hypokalemia. Accordingly, A. wilkesiana might be considered relatively safe and can be employed in the management of diseases involved in high sodium and potassium ions in the serum. High doses should be avoided as may affect electrolytes balance in body fluids.
This study investigated the effects of di-n-butylphthalate on the liver, after oral administration, to adult male albino Wistar rats. Twenty rats, weighing between 146.10g and 301.20g were arranged into groups A,B,C,D, of five rats each, and were fed with graded concentrations, 0 mg/kg, 2,000 mg/kg, 4,000 mg/kg and 6,000 mg/kg body weight of di-n-butylphthalate respectively for thirty days. Serum levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase AST, served as indices of liver function. In addition, the cell histology of the liver of the rats was also examined. The results of all the liver parameters were significantly high (P<0.05), in groups B, C. and D. when compared to the level in the control group A. Conjugated bilirubin also recorded a significantly low level (P<0.05) in the treated groups B (2.14+0.04µmol/L), C (2.18+0.05µmol/L), and D (2.22+0.02µmol/L). The histological examination of the liver cell revealed occasional portal inflammation mild fibrosis and moderate amount of nuclear pyknosis. After thirty days of treatment, the control group showed a mean weight gain of 1.31%, whereas the treated groups B, C and D recorded a significant decrease in weight of 2.02%, 2.11% and 1.19% respectively. This study indicates that the chemical, di-n- butylphthalate is organotoxic, and may affect organ functions for example liver functions, at high concentrations.
The present study was aimed at investigating the relationship between some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) and Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in subjects of AA and AS Hb genotypes in Enugu metropolis, South-East Nigeria. A total of 207 subjects aged 20-70 years were recruited for the study and divided into 4 groups. Blood samples were collected from each patient from the ante-cubital vein without venous stasis. Determination of Hb genotype was done electrophoretically, while quantitation of parasites and estimation of parasite density were done microscopically. Estimation of IFN-γ and IL-12 in serum was carried out using ELISA kit (Enzo® Life Sciences, U.S.A). Data were analyzed using Graph Pad Prism version 5 and SPSS version 20 computer software at 95% confidence level and results are expressed as mean ± SEM. A comparison of the test groups showed that AA test group had significantly higher MP density (3,906 ± 436.5 parasites/µl of blood ) than AS test group (1,293 ± 179 parasites/µl of blood) (P<0.0001). The AA test group also had significantly higher IFN-γ (pg/ml) (14.36 ± 0.56 pg/ml) compared to AS test group (10.69 ± 0.40 pg/ml). IL-12 however was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in AA test subjects (13.93 ± 0.62 pg/ml) compared to the AS test subjects (23.55 ± 1.20 pg/ml). All the assayed cytokines were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the test subjects compared to the control. MP density however showed significant negative correlation (r=-0.3198; P=0.0389) with IL-12 in AS test subjects. There was no correlation (P>0.05) between IFN-γ and IL-12 in both AA and AS test subjects. There was also no correlation between gender and the cytokines in both AA test subjects IFN-γ (r=0.085, P=0.578) IL-12 (r= -0.091, P=0.552) and AS test subjects IFN-γ (r=0.000, P=0.998) IL-12 (r=0.019, P=0.904). The low IL-12 in AA test subjects must have led to progression of the disease, whereas the high IL-12 in AS test subjects must have led to increased resolution of the disease. The present study shows that pro-inflammatory cytokines actually contribute to P. falciparum malaria outcome in AA and resolution AS subjects in Enugu metropolis. The protective effect of sickle cell trait may be linked to the levels of IL-12. However, gender played no role.
This work evaluated the effect of co-administration of calcium and spices mixture (SM) on renal function parameters of lead exposed rats. Twenty five (25) male Albino rats weighing 100-123.3 g were used for the study. The animals were grouped into five (5) groups (I-V) of five rats per group. Group I received feed and water and served as the negative control. Group II received only lead chloride (25 mg/Kg body weight) and served as the positive control. Group III was co-administered 750 mg/Kg weight of calcium carbonate and 25 mg/Kg body weight of lead chloride. Group IV was co-administered 300 mg/Kg body weight of extract of spice mixture (SM) and 25mg/Kg body weight of lead chloride while group V was co-administered 300 mg/kg body weight of extract of spices mixture, 25 mg/Kg body weight of lead chloride and 750 mg/Kg body weight of calcium carbonate. All treatment was orally administered. The treatment lasted for 42 days after which blood samples were collected for the determination of renal function parameters and serum electrolytes using standard techniques and methods. The result showed significantly (p<0.05) higher plasma uric acid, creatinine, and urea in lead exposed rats in comparison to the non-exposed group. These biochemical alterations were however almost restored to the levels found in the non-exposed animals following administration of either calcium or spices mixture alone or when both were co-administered. Co-administration of SM plus calcium, or administration of calcium alone or SM alone may have ameliorative effect on lead-induced kidney dysfunction in rats.
Uterine leiomyoma also known as fibroid is a medical problem of the female reproductive tract and prevalent among black women of child-bearing age. Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a popular food seasoning agent is an oestrogen disruptor but its intake has not been linked to fibroid. Fibroid has no known chemotherapy and hysterectomy leaves huge financial burden with side effects. It is necessary to determine its safer management method. This work investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) on uterus and kidney sections of rats with monosodium glutamate-induced leiomyoma. Twenty-eight rats were used. They were divided into four groups of seven rats each and acclimatized. Fibroid was induced on three groups after daily ingestion of 750mg/kg body weight of MSG for 28 days. Negative control had no fibroid. Positive control had fibroid but remained untreated. Groups III and IV also had fibroid. Groups III and IV were continuously ingested with the same dose of MSG for the next 28 days with daily oral treatment using 250mg/kg body weight aqueous extracts of turmeric and ginger, respectively. Histological examinations were performed on the 2nd and 4th weeks, respectively, on two rats from each group for the next 28 days. Results showed nephrotoxic effects of MSG with endometrial degeneration. Group III rats gave mild histological textures of their tissues compared with Group IV rats. MSG ingestion is nephrotoxic but the use of turmeric aqueous extract alleviated this effect and could be used in fibroid of management.
The present study aims to evaluate the combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and cyanide exposure on liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Kidney functions (urea and creatinine) in rats. 16 male albino rats weighing between 100 and 150 g were utilized in the study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (n=4) as follows: Group 1 = Control; Group 2 = exposed to cadmium only (as cadmium chloride), Group 3 = exposed to cyanide only (as potassium cyanide); Group 4 = exposed to cyanide + cadmium .The exposure of the rats to the experimental treatment was done daily for 28 days. The serum liver enzymes, urea and creatinine were assayed using standard operating procedures (SOP). The results showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the levels of serum ALT, AST and ALP, Urea and creatinine in Group 2, 3 and 4 when compared with Group 1. However there was a significant decrease in AST and ALT activity in the rats in Group 4 when compared with Group 2 rats. In addition there was no significant difference in Urea and Creatinine activities among all the treated groups when comparing across the treated Groups. The result indicates that a combination of cyanide and cadmium is toxic to the liver and kidney of rats and could be deleterious to these organs, however, their combined effects was not synergistic.
The phytochemical, proximate, vitamins and mineral element composition of Coconut (Cocos nucifera) were investigated in this research. The phytochemical properties of the sample were screened qualitatively and also quantified and the result revealed a significant amount of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and reducing sugars while saponins, glycosides, soluble carbohydrate and terpenoids were found in trace amount, hydrogen cyanides not detected qualitatively. The proximate analyses of the Cocos nucifera sample was carried out using the methods described by Pearson and the results showed high level of crude fats 56.36±0.04% and carbohydrate 31.29±0.14%, a considerable amount of moisture and crude protein 8.33±0.03 and 7.53±0.05%, respectively and also, ash 2.43±0.03% and fibre 2.38±0.07%. This composition shows that the sample could be a good source of oil, carbohydrate, dietary fibre and protein. However, the methods outlined by AOAC, 2000 were used to determine the mineral composition of the Cocos nucifera seeds. The results revealed that the sample posses preponderance amount of mineral elements; magnesium 318.11±7.07 mg, calcium 25.87±0.09 mg, potassium 29.92±0.04 mg, sodium 16.92±0.06 mg, phosphorus 4.54±0.03 mg and copper 1.24±0.02mg per 100g dry weight respectively; with trace amounts of manganese 0.64±0.01 mg, zinc 0.76±0.06 mg and iron 0.62±0.01 mg. This implies that Cocos nucifera seeds no doubt is a good source of minerals despite the negligible amount of iron, zinc and manganese. The method of Association of Official and Analytical Chemists AOAC, 1990 was used for the vitamins analyses and the seed sample was also found to contain an appreciable amount of vitamin A 3.12±0.01 mg/100g, vitamin C 14.71±0.05 mg/100g, vitamin B2 1.76±0.41 mg/100g and vitamin B6 1.61±0.04mg/100g. Other vitamins analysed on the seed extract though found in trace amount were vitamin D, E, K, B1, B3, B5, B9 and B12. The results from the present study implicitly showed that Cocos nucifera seed is nutritionally potent and could be good for dietary supplements in human and animal nutrition.
Ginkgo biloba (GB) leaves and extracts have been recognized worldwide for its renowned nutritional and medicinal properties. GB tree is highly grown and used in Asian and South American countries unlike Nigeria. In this study, we examined the nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of GB leaves (whole dried, and aqueous and ethanol extracts) grown in Nigeria. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method was used to determine the proximate and vitamin compositions while Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to analyze the minerals. Anti-nutrients analysis was done using gas chromatography. The results of analyses on whole dried leaves showed that the nutritional composition was high in carbohydrate (59.70+1.02mg/100g) and energy value (287.00+2.59Kcal/g) and low in protein (6.65+0.38mg/100g), lipid (2.40+0.14mg/100g), fibre (2.50+0.21mg/100g) and moisture (15.65+0.38mg/100g). High concentrations was also observed for vitamins A (79.75+9.05), C (79.20+2.56) and E (59.31+2.84) while vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and B12 (1.53+0.04, 2.98+0.62, 2.44+0.25, 3.57+0.24 and 0.28+0.01 mg/100g) respectively, were found in lower concentrations. The mineral analysis also showed high concentrations in macro minerals especially calcium and magnesium (24.620+0.410 and 18.450+0.28mg/100g) followed by phosphorous (4.896+0.003mg/100g), potassium (4.332+0.000mg/100g), and sodium (2.340+0.001mg/100g). The concentrations in micro minerals were iron (6.667+0.003mg/100g), zinc (1.851+0.001mg/100g), manganese (0.626+0.025mg/100g), copper (0.640+0.000mg/100g) and selenium (0.391+0.003mg/100g). However, the absence of molybedenum (Mo) in the leaves was observed. The calcium/phosphorous and sodium/potassium ratios were 5.029+0.087 and 0.540+0.000 mg/100g respectively. The anti-nutrients analysis of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaf showed low concentrations of phytate, oxalate and tannin. The low concentrations observed are considered to be non-toxic to man. These investigations have revealed the nutritional potentials of Ginkgo biloba leaves grown in Nigeria. The findings therefore, will be useful for nutritional and medical practice in Nigeria and beyond for maintenance of good health of individuals.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology