The traditional method of preparing herbal decoctions has been known for ages without certainty if the most efficacious phenolic bio-molecules of medicinal plants e.g. Phyllanthus amarus (Schum and Thonn) are being exploited. More so, high salt diet (HSD) intake has been established worldwide, to deleteriously induce hyperlipidemia-related hypertensive rubor, renal subjugation and adipocyte proliferation. The present study was to validate the best extraction method that would greatly tap the Phyllanthus amarus (Schum and Thonn) whole plant phenolic phytoconstituent and also evaluate its in-vivo role in the amelioration of high salt meal triggered hyperlipidemia, adiposity, and renal dysfunction in an animal model, within 8 weeks. Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rodents (170-180g) were grouped, and treated as follows: Group1: fed with normal rat chow; Group 2: HSD; Group 3: HSD+75mg/kg/b.wt of PRE; Group 4: HSD+100mg/kg/b.wt of PRE; Group 5: HSD+150mg/kg/b.wt of PRE. Results showed that aqueous acetone concentrates exhibited the highest 2, 2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (result not shown), and also with the highest content of total phenolics. The in-vivo results further revealed significant (p < 0.05) histopathological alterations in the renal architecture of group 2 fed high salt chow only, increased kidney weight, lipid profile, body fat deposit(54.5%) andconcentration of renal bio-products. It also established a significant dose-dependent recuperating potential in the groups co-treated with PRE when compared with rats on normal chow. The aqueous acetone solvent exhibited the best extraction medium for PRE and may thus be considered as an imminent therapeutic agent in managing high salt-driven Hyperlipidemia, Adiposity and Renal dysfunction.
Bromate is a commonly used additive in baked food products. However, it was later implicated as a causative agent of cancer and other related health problems like induction of oxidative or mutagenic DNA damage; yet some bakers still, secretly, indulge in its usage. This study was taken to investigate possible association between blood dyscracia and consumption of low levels of this compound. Toxicity study of bromate was carried out on 20 albino rats using standard method. Then, haemogram and organometrics of another 20 albino rats (divided into four groups) administered with different concentrations of the bromate were determined before and after 60 days of administration for possible blood dyscracias, also using standard methods. Toxicity test revealed an oral LD50 of 18.8 ± 6.2 mg/kg bodyweight. Significant increases (p < 0.05) were observed in haemoglobin concentration and mean cell haemoglobin concentration after 60 days of administration, while total white blood cells and absolute differentials of white blood cells did not show any statistical differences (p > 0.05) when pre-administration values were compared to post-administration values. Spleen weight revealed no significant difference (p > 0.05) in pre compared to post administration while liver and kidney weights revealed significant increases (p < 0.05) in the experimental groups compared to controls. The study revealed no association between blood dyscracias and bromate at the doses and duration of exposures, though significant changes in organometrics indicated possible long term effects.
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease, which includes chronicinflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies have suggested that the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease is multifactorial, resulting from the interplay ofimmunological, molecular, genetic, microbial, diet, drug use-related, and environmental factors.This study was designed to investigatemultiple organ toxicity of Dextran sulfate sodium-induced (DSS) ulcerative colitis using glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolizing enzymes as indices. Twelve mice were divided into two groups of six mice each.Group A (Control) received normal drinking water while group B was fed with 2.5% DSS for 7 days in their drinking water, and the dextran sulfate sodium solution was replenished daily. The liver, kidney, colon, spleen was excised from the mice after the last administration of DSS, glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolizing enzymes were assessed in all the organs and lymphocytes.Activities of glycolytic enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and NADase were down-regulated in all the organs. Hepatic hexokinase activity significantly reduced as opposed to the increase observed in other organs, while aldolase activities were up-regulated in all the organs.Furthermore, DSS administration caused perturbation in the activities of mitochondrial metabolizing enzymes in all the organs. Activities of succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, Combined Complexes I+III, II+III, and IV were down-regulated. All observations are relative to control.Data from this study demonstrated that administration of DSS induced ulcerative colitis which invariably perturbs the glycolytic enzymes while mitochondrial metabolizing enzymes are down-regulated leading to decreased energy availability for cellular processes during ulcerative colitis pathological condition.
The present study analyzed the chemical components and the antioxidant potentials of and antimicrobial activities of the oil isolated from Datura stramonium fruits that were grown in Ogbomoso, Southwest, Nigeria. Fresh fruits of Datura stramonium were collected in the premises of LAUTECH Teaching Hospital. Ogbomoso, South West Nigeria around February 2018. The fruit oil was thereafter extracted with 70% methanol and concentrated with a rotary evaporator. The iodine, saponification, acid, peroxide values were determined titrimetrically. An in-vitro 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total phenol content, reductive potential, ferric reducing antioxidant assay, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was used to determine the antioxidants activity of the oil spectrophotometrically. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to identify the chemical constituents of the oil. The iodine, saponification, acid, and peroxide values of the oil were 86.15 ± 1,01 mg/g oil, 253.85 ± 0.98 MgKOH/g, 5.27 ± 0.032 mgKOH/g, and 2.80 ± 0.79 milli – equivalentO2/kg respectively. A concentration-dependent increase in in-vitro antioxidant activities characterized the data from all the antioxidant parameters tested. While results obtained from GC-MS analysis reveals that the Datura stramonium fruit oil contained phenolic compounds, alkene compounds, aliphatic compounds, amide compounds, and fatty acid, HPLC identified the presence of catechin, rutin, and kaempferol, Oil from Datura stramonium fruit has potent antioxidant potentials and can therefore be looked into for possible utilization.
Intake of chemicals like monosodium glutamate (MSG), mostly used as a food seasoning, enhance the prevalence of leiomyoma. Leiomyoma has no known cure but Spondias mombin leaves have been in use, locally, in its management among Igbos of South-Eastern Nigeria. This work investigated the effect of S. mombin extract on hepatocytes after ingesting MSG. Twenty-one rats used in this study were divided into three groups of seven rats each and acclimatized. Two groups had fibroid after daily ingestion of 750mg/kg body weight of MSG for 28 days. Negative control had no fibroid. Positive control had fibroid and remained untreated. Group III, with fibroid, were continuously fed with the same dose of MSG for the next 28 days in addition to daily oral treatment with 250mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of Spondias mombin. Histological examinations of rat’s hepatocytes were performed on 2ndand 4thweeks, respectively, using two rats from each group for the next 28 days. Results indicated that the aqueous extract of S. mombin did not preserve the rat’s hepatocytes. Ingestion of S. mombin aqueous extract is deleterious to hepatocytes and could lead to other liver diseases. Results further indicated that continuous ingestion of MSG is destructive to hepatocytes. Care should be applied while ingesting an aqueous extract of S. mombin either as prophylaxis or as a chemotherapeutic agent. The result of this study had shown that oral intake of MSG has the potential of inducing uterine leiomyoma in experimental albino Wistar rats.
Momordica charantia is a vegetable that is used for nutritional and medicinal purposes. Despite its wide usage, information about the nutritional composition is scanty. In this study the nutritional value of M. charantia leaves and seeds was estimated using standard analytical procedures. Proximate composition of the leaves showed 14.39±0.37%minerals, 27.38±0.44% protein, 2.19±0.27% Lipids, 3.48±0.23% fiber, and 41.08±0.92% carbohydrate while the seeds contained 9.83±0.33%, 19.78±0.28%, 11.88±0.56%, 26.09±0.14%, 11.54±0.31% of the respective nutrients, indicating significant mean difference between the leaves and seeds (P<0.05). Benitez method was used for amino acid profiling; eighteen amino acids- Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Cys, Phe, Tyr, Thr, Val, Ala, Arg, Asp, Glu, Gly, His, Pro Ser and Trp were detected. Furthermore, the leaves contain twelve fatty acids of which six were unsaturated while the seeds contain seven fatty acids with four being unsaturated. Total saturated fatty acid in the leaves and seeds were 65.50% and 52.90% respectively. Dipalmitic acid and stearic acid were respectively the most predominant saturated fatty acids in the leaves and seed samples. The predominant unsaturated fatty acid in the leaves and seeds was oleic acid (8.30%) and (13.0%) respectively. The bitter component (momordicin) in the seed was estimated to be 3.8% (w/w) of the powdered dry sample. This result showed that M. charantia leaves and seeds could be an important green leafy vegetable and a source of nutrients to supplement other major sources
The toxicity of aqueous leaf extract of Acalypha wilkesiana in rats was investigated. Acute toxicity was carried out to determine the 𝐿𝐷50 of the plant’s extract. The extracts were administered orally up to a dose of 5000mg/kg for the 𝐿𝐷50 determination. No death was recorded during the acute toxicity test, which may imply that the plant is practically non-toxic. There was a progressive significant reduction (p<0.05) in serum sodium and potassium ions concentration with increasing doses of the extract above 10 mg/kg when compared with the control group in phase one. A significant change in urea was also observed at a dose of 100 and 1000mg/Kg respectively. In phase two, there was a slight increase in potassium, urea, and creatinine as well. Indeed, creatinine is known as a good indicator of renal function. The kidney functional indices: serum concentrations of creatinine, bicarbonate, and chloride were not significantly changed following acute administration of aqueous leaf extract (p<0.05) when compared with the control group in phase one. The observed progressive decrease in serum sodium and potassium ions as the dose of the extract exceeds 10mg/kg might be an indication of this extract could cause hyponatremia and hypokalemia. Accordingly, A. wilkesiana might be considered relatively safe and can be employed in the management of diseases involved in high sodium and potassium ions in the serum. High doses should be avoided as may affect electrolytes balance in body fluids.
This study investigated the effects of di-n-butylphthalate on the liver, after oral administration, to adult male albino Wistar rats. Twenty rats, weighing between 146.10g and 301.20g were arranged into groups A,B,C,D, of five rats each, and were fed with graded concentrations, 0 mg/kg, 2,000 mg/kg, 4,000 mg/kg and 6,000 mg/kg body weight of di-n-butylphthalate respectively for thirty days. Serum levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase AST, served as indices of liver function. In addition, the cell histology of the liver of the rats was also examined. The results of all the liver parameters were significantly high (P<0.05), in groups B, C. and D. when compared to the level in the control group A. Conjugated bilirubin also recorded a significantly low level (P<0.05) in the treated groups B (2.14+0.04µmol/L), C (2.18+0.05µmol/L), and D (2.22+0.02µmol/L). The histological examination of the liver cell revealed occasional portal inflammation mild fibrosis and moderate amount of nuclear pyknosis. After thirty days of treatment, the control group showed a mean weight gain of 1.31%, whereas the treated groups B, C and D recorded a significant decrease in weight of 2.02%, 2.11% and 1.19% respectively. This study indicates that the chemical, di-n- butylphthalate is organotoxic, and may affect organ functions for example liver functions, at high concentrations.
The present study was aimed at investigating the relationship between some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) and Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in subjects of AA and AS Hb genotypes in Enugu metropolis, South-East Nigeria. A total of 207 subjects aged 20-70 years were recruited for the study and divided into 4 groups. Blood samples were collected from each patient from the ante-cubital vein without venous stasis. Determination of Hb genotype was done electrophoretically, while quantitation of parasites and estimation of parasite density were done microscopically. Estimation of IFN-γ and IL-12 in serum was carried out using ELISA kit (Enzo® Life Sciences, U.S.A). Data were analyzed using Graph Pad Prism version 5 and SPSS version 20 computer software at 95% confidence level and results are expressed as mean ± SEM. A comparison of the test groups showed that AA test group had significantly higher MP density (3,906 ± 436.5 parasites/µl of blood ) than AS test group (1,293 ± 179 parasites/µl of blood) (P<0.0001). The AA test group also had significantly higher IFN-γ (pg/ml) (14.36 ± 0.56 pg/ml) compared to AS test group (10.69 ± 0.40 pg/ml). IL-12 however was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in AA test subjects (13.93 ± 0.62 pg/ml) compared to the AS test subjects (23.55 ± 1.20 pg/ml). All the assayed cytokines were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the test subjects compared to the control. MP density however showed significant negative correlation (r=-0.3198; P=0.0389) with IL-12 in AS test subjects. There was no correlation (P>0.05) between IFN-γ and IL-12 in both AA and AS test subjects. There was also no correlation between gender and the cytokines in both AA test subjects IFN-γ (r=0.085, P=0.578) IL-12 (r= -0.091, P=0.552) and AS test subjects IFN-γ (r=0.000, P=0.998) IL-12 (r=0.019, P=0.904). The low IL-12 in AA test subjects must have led to progression of the disease, whereas the high IL-12 in AS test subjects must have led to increased resolution of the disease. The present study shows that pro-inflammatory cytokines actually contribute to P. falciparum malaria outcome in AA and resolution AS subjects in Enugu metropolis. The protective effect of sickle cell trait may be linked to the levels of IL-12. However, gender played no role.
This work evaluated the effect of co-administration of calcium and spices mixture (SM) on renal function parameters of lead exposed rats. Twenty five (25) male Albino rats weighing 100-123.3 g were used for the study. The animals were grouped into five (5) groups (I-V) of five rats per group. Group I received feed and water and served as the negative control. Group II received only lead chloride (25 mg/Kg body weight) and served as the positive control. Group III was co-administered 750 mg/Kg weight of calcium carbonate and 25 mg/Kg body weight of lead chloride. Group IV was co-administered 300 mg/Kg body weight of extract of spice mixture (SM) and 25mg/Kg body weight of lead chloride while group V was co-administered 300 mg/kg body weight of extract of spices mixture, 25 mg/Kg body weight of lead chloride and 750 mg/Kg body weight of calcium carbonate. All treatment was orally administered. The treatment lasted for 42 days after which blood samples were collected for the determination of renal function parameters and serum electrolytes using standard techniques and methods. The result showed significantly (p<0.05) higher plasma uric acid, creatinine, and urea in lead exposed rats in comparison to the non-exposed group. These biochemical alterations were however almost restored to the levels found in the non-exposed animals following administration of either calcium or spices mixture alone or when both were co-administered. Co-administration of SM plus calcium, or administration of calcium alone or SM alone may have ameliorative effect on lead-induced kidney dysfunction in rats.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology