Uterine leiomyoma also known as fibroid is a medical problem of the female reproductive tract and prevalent among black women of child-bearing age. Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a popular food seasoning agent is an oestrogen disruptor but its intake has not been linked to fibroid. Fibroid has no known chemotherapy and hysterectomy leaves huge financial burden with side effects. It is necessary to determine its safer management method. This work investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) on uterus and kidney sections of rats with monosodium glutamate-induced leiomyoma. Twenty-eight rats were used. They were divided into four groups of seven rats each and acclimatized. Fibroid was induced on three groups after daily ingestion of 750mg/kg body weight of MSG for 28 days. Negative control had no fibroid. Positive control had fibroid but remained untreated. Groups III and IV also had fibroid. Groups III and IV were continuously ingested with the same dose of MSG for the next 28 days with daily oral treatment using 250mg/kg body weight aqueous extracts of turmeric and ginger, respectively. Histological examinations were performed on the 2nd and 4th weeks, respectively, on two rats from each group for the next 28 days. Results showed nephrotoxic effects of MSG with endometrial degeneration. Group III rats gave mild histological textures of their tissues compared with Group IV rats. MSG ingestion is nephrotoxic but the use of turmeric aqueous extract alleviated this effect and could be used in fibroid of management.
The present study aims to evaluate the combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and cyanide exposure on liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Kidney functions (urea and creatinine) in rats. 16 male albino rats weighing between 100 and 150 g were utilized in the study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (n=4) as follows: Group 1 = Control; Group 2 = exposed to cadmium only (as cadmium chloride), Group 3 = exposed to cyanide only (as potassium cyanide); Group 4 = exposed to cyanide + cadmium .The exposure of the rats to the experimental treatment was done daily for 28 days. The serum liver enzymes, urea and creatinine were assayed using standard operating procedures (SOP). The results showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the levels of serum ALT, AST and ALP, Urea and creatinine in Group 2, 3 and 4 when compared with Group 1. However there was a significant decrease in AST and ALT activity in the rats in Group 4 when compared with Group 2 rats. In addition there was no significant difference in Urea and Creatinine activities among all the treated groups when comparing across the treated Groups. The result indicates that a combination of cyanide and cadmium is toxic to the liver and kidney of rats and could be deleterious to these organs, however, their combined effects was not synergistic.
The phytochemical, proximate, vitamins and mineral element composition of Coconut (Cocos nucifera) were investigated in this research. The phytochemical properties of the sample were screened qualitatively and also quantified and the result revealed a significant amount of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and reducing sugars while saponins, glycosides, soluble carbohydrate and terpenoids were found in trace amount, hydrogen cyanides not detected qualitatively. The proximate analyses of the Cocos nucifera sample was carried out using the methods described by Pearson and the results showed high level of crude fats 56.36±0.04% and carbohydrate 31.29±0.14%, a considerable amount of moisture and crude protein 8.33±0.03 and 7.53±0.05%, respectively and also, ash 2.43±0.03% and fibre 2.38±0.07%. This composition shows that the sample could be a good source of oil, carbohydrate, dietary fibre and protein. However, the methods outlined by AOAC, 2000 were used to determine the mineral composition of the Cocos nucifera seeds. The results revealed that the sample posses preponderance amount of mineral elements; magnesium 318.11±7.07 mg, calcium 25.87±0.09 mg, potassium 29.92±0.04 mg, sodium 16.92±0.06 mg, phosphorus 4.54±0.03 mg and copper 1.24±0.02mg per 100g dry weight respectively; with trace amounts of manganese 0.64±0.01 mg, zinc 0.76±0.06 mg and iron 0.62±0.01 mg. This implies that Cocos nucifera seeds no doubt is a good source of minerals despite the negligible amount of iron, zinc and manganese. The method of Association of Official and Analytical Chemists AOAC, 1990 was used for the vitamins analyses and the seed sample was also found to contain an appreciable amount of vitamin A 3.12±0.01 mg/100g, vitamin C 14.71±0.05 mg/100g, vitamin B2 1.76±0.41 mg/100g and vitamin B6 1.61±0.04mg/100g. Other vitamins analysed on the seed extract though found in trace amount were vitamin D, E, K, B1, B3, B5, B9 and B12. The results from the present study implicitly showed that Cocos nucifera seed is nutritionally potent and could be good for dietary supplements in human and animal nutrition.
Ginkgo biloba (GB) leaves and extracts have been recognized worldwide for its renowned nutritional and medicinal properties. GB tree is highly grown and used in Asian and South American countries unlike Nigeria. In this study, we examined the nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of GB leaves (whole dried, and aqueous and ethanol extracts) grown in Nigeria. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method was used to determine the proximate and vitamin compositions while Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to analyze the minerals. Anti-nutrients analysis was done using gas chromatography. The results of analyses on whole dried leaves showed that the nutritional composition was high in carbohydrate (59.70+1.02mg/100g) and energy value (287.00+2.59Kcal/g) and low in protein (6.65+0.38mg/100g), lipid (2.40+0.14mg/100g), fibre (2.50+0.21mg/100g) and moisture (15.65+0.38mg/100g). High concentrations was also observed for vitamins A (79.75+9.05), C (79.20+2.56) and E (59.31+2.84) while vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and B12 (1.53+0.04, 2.98+0.62, 2.44+0.25, 3.57+0.24 and 0.28+0.01 mg/100g) respectively, were found in lower concentrations. The mineral analysis also showed high concentrations in macro minerals especially calcium and magnesium (24.620+0.410 and 18.450+0.28mg/100g) followed by phosphorous (4.896+0.003mg/100g), potassium (4.332+0.000mg/100g), and sodium (2.340+0.001mg/100g). The concentrations in micro minerals were iron (6.667+0.003mg/100g), zinc (1.851+0.001mg/100g), manganese (0.626+0.025mg/100g), copper (0.640+0.000mg/100g) and selenium (0.391+0.003mg/100g). However, the absence of molybedenum (Mo) in the leaves was observed. The calcium/phosphorous and sodium/potassium ratios were 5.029+0.087 and 0.540+0.000 mg/100g respectively. The anti-nutrients analysis of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaf showed low concentrations of phytate, oxalate and tannin. The low concentrations observed are considered to be non-toxic to man. These investigations have revealed the nutritional potentials of Ginkgo biloba leaves grown in Nigeria. The findings therefore, will be useful for nutritional and medical practice in Nigeria and beyond for maintenance of good health of individuals.
Lindane (C6H6Cl6) an organochlorine pesticide has been used in agriculture and domestic purposes for several years. The aim of present study was to analyze the oxidative effect of lindane which caused biochemical and ultrastructural changes in adult male wistar rats and to evaluate the possible protective effect of Curcumin (C21H20O6). Tissues damage was assessed by histopathological observation. Curcumin plays an important role as an antioxidant and consequently expected to protect tissues from damage caused by reactive oxygen metabolites. Rats were divided into seven groups. Group-A, was given normal diet and water ad libitum. Lindane (30 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally for 14 and 28 days in group- B and group-C respectively. Curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight) was given to Group-D and Group-E. Lindane (30 mg/kg body weight) along with Curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally for 28 days in group-F. Group-G, was allowed to metabolize after 14 days of exposure to lindane. Lindane administration lead to a significantly (P<0.001) increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) associated with reduction in levels of GSH (Glutathione), activity of SOD (Super Oxide Dismutase), CAT (Catalase) and GST (Glutahione-S-transferase). Pre-feeding and post-feeding of Curcumin resulted in decreased hepatic levels of lipid peroxides (LPO) and increased GSH (C10H17N3O6S), SOD, CAT (Catalase) and GST (Glutahione-S-transferase) activities. Results revealed that Curcumin in combination with lindane partially or totally alleviated its toxic effects on the studied parameters. In conclusion, Curcumin have beneficial effects and could be able to antagonize lindane toxicity.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics including resins that line food and beverage containers. BPA is known to leach from these products into containerized foods and drinks, and is therefore thought to be routinely ingested. In this present study the possible effect of BPA on blood lipid metabolism were investigated in rats. Female albino Wistar rats were administrated oral doses of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 µg BPA/kgbw/day once to determine effect of acute exposure and repeatedly for seven days in another set of test animals to determine the effects of sub-chronic exposure. Following the treatment, serum levels of lipid parameters were examined using the Chemwell Chemical Analyser. All data were expressed as means ± SD. The result of the study revealed that BPA increased blood triglycerides and LDL of exposed rats at both acute and sub-chronic phases.
Body weight is the total mass or weight of a person or animal obtained without any external factor than the component of the body. Overweight or underweight may influence the fertility status of either animal or human as the case may be. The aim of this study is to determine whether weight loss has any correlation with male or female infertility. Twenty four Wister albino rats were sleep deprived and used in this study. The albino rats were certified healthy before sleep deprivation. Body weight of the rats were measured before and after sleep deprivation. The pre sleep deprivation body weight values of the albino rats served as control for weight loss. Serum specimen was also collected from the rats before and after sleep deprivation for the assay of some fertility hormones. The pre sleep deprivation assay results of the fertility hormones equally served as control for post sleep deprivation status of the fertility hormones. The fertility hormones assayed include follicle stimulation hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), Prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Testosterone and estradiol. The results showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in body weight of albino rats after sleep deprivation when compared with the control. There were significant decreases (P<0.05) in testosterone, estradiol, prolactin and TSH serum levels after sleep deprivation when compared with their controls respectively, while there were no significant changes (P>0.05) in the serum level of FSH and LH. These results indicate that all other relevant factors being equal, body weight loss has negative effect on male and female fertility, using body weight and fertility hormone as indices.
Some biochemical and haematological changes have been reported in malaria parasitemic pregnant women in urban and rural malaria-endemic areas, indicating different oxidative status of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some antioxidant vitamins in symptomatic malaria parasitemic pregnant women to re-appraise the need and extent of vitamin supplementations in this condition. It is a cross-sectional study done between September, 2011 and March, 2012. The study involved 119 pregnant women aged between 24 and 36years, who presented in antenatal clinics with full symptoms of malaria infection. They were within the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Malaria density was determined by absolute malaria parasite count while the vitamins (A, C and E) were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. Our results showed that vitamin A concentrations in controls, mild and moderate malaria densities were 16.48 ± 0.75µg/ml, 15.72 ± 0.58µg/ml and 16.19 ± 1.40µg/ml respectively, vitamin C were 31.31 ± 0.97mg/dL; 38.33 ± 2.73mg/dL and 52.17mg/dL respectively while vitamin E were 0.89 ± 0.09mg/dL; 2.05 ± 0.27mg/dL and 3.32 ± 0.23mg/dL respectively. The results indicated that there were no significant changes in vitamin A while vitamins C and E increased significantly as malaria density increased. The changes in these vitamins are indications of increased endogenous mobilization to fight oxidative stress. We opine that the results are suggestive of extra oxidative stress in symptomatic malaria parasitemia, and that inadequate concentrations of these antioxidants can potentiate the virulence of these parasites.
Twenty (20) adult albino mice were used in the study to determine the effect of methanolic seed extract of Persea Americana on prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test. The mice were obtained and kept for 2 weeks to acclimatize. They were weighed and divided into 5 groups. Group A served as control without the extract. Groups B to E were orally administered with graded doses of 200mg, 400 mg, 800 mg and 1600mg/kg body weight per mice daily for 28 days. Blood samples were collected through the median canthus into ti-sodium citrate anticoagulant containers for the analysis of PT and APTT, using standard operative procedure. The analysis was carried out at the Haematology Laboratory of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu. The results showed a prolonged APTT time at all the doses of the extract when compared with the control (P<0.05). The prothrombin time at the dosage of 200mg/kg did not differ when compared with the control (P>0.05). The increase in PT and APTT was dose dependent. This result pattern suggests that the extract causes prolonged prothrombin time and APTT at various concentrations possibly due to its high potassium content. The extract can be recommended in anticoagulant therapy since it prolongs PT and APTT.
Studies have shown that vitamin-A supplementation has beneficial effect on iron deficiency anaemia. The adequacy or otherwise of this supplementation and the effect this has on iron and vitamin-A status in maternal and cord blood was therefore the focus of this study. Fifty-three (53) maternal and cord blood samples were used with twenty age-matched control samples from non-pregnant women Informed consent was given by all the subjects and ethical clearance was obtained from the ethics committee of the institution before the commencement of the study. Haemoglobin (Hb) level, vitamin A, total iron binding capacity and serum iron were all estimated using standard operative procedures. The result showed a significantly higher level of iron and vitamin A(P<0.05) for the control over the test and significantly lower level of total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) (P<0.05). Cord blood vitamin-A and iron were significantly elevated over the maternal blood while the TIBC were lower (P<0.05). Inspite of this significant difference, there was a positive correlation between the TIBC, serum iron and vitamin-A levels of maternal and cord blood samples. Both vitamin-A and serum iron of the group with low haemoglobin were significantly lower when compared with the rest of the test groups. Increased vitamin-A and iron supplementation may therefore be required for pregnant women with low haemoglobin to prevent infant and maternal mortality in developing countries.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology