The phytochemical, proximate, vitamins and mineral element composition of Coconut (Cocos nucifera) were investigated in this research. The phytochemical properties of the sample were screened qualitatively and also quantified and the result revealed a significant amount of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and reducing sugars while saponins, glycosides, soluble carbohydrate and terpenoids were found in trace amount, hydrogen cyanides not detected qualitatively. The proximate analyses of the Cocos nucifera sample was carried out using the methods described by Pearson and the results showed high level of crude fats 56.36±0.04% and carbohydrate 31.29±0.14%, a considerable amount of moisture and crude protein 8.33±0.03 and 7.53±0.05%, respectively and also, ash 2.43±0.03% and fibre 2.38±0.07%. This composition shows that the sample could be a good source of oil, carbohydrate, dietary fibre and protein. However, the methods outlined by AOAC, 2000 were used to determine the mineral composition of the Cocos nucifera seeds. The results revealed that the sample posses preponderance amount of mineral elements; magnesium 318.11±7.07 mg, calcium 25.87±0.09 mg, potassium 29.92±0.04 mg, sodium 16.92±0.06 mg, phosphorus 4.54±0.03 mg and copper 1.24±0.02mg per 100g dry weight respectively; with trace amounts of manganese 0.64±0.01 mg, zinc 0.76±0.06 mg and iron 0.62±0.01 mg. This implies that Cocos nucifera seeds no doubt is a good source of minerals despite the negligible amount of iron, zinc and manganese. The method of Association of Official and Analytical Chemists AOAC, 1990 was used for the vitamins analyses and the seed sample was also found to contain an appreciable amount of vitamin A 3.12±0.01 mg/100g, vitamin C 14.71±0.05 mg/100g, vitamin B2 1.76±0.41 mg/100g and vitamin B6 1.61±0.04mg/100g. Other vitamins analysed on the seed extract though found in trace amount were vitamin D, E, K, B1, B3, B5, B9 and B12. The results from the present study implicitly showed that Cocos nucifera seed is nutritionally potent and could be good for dietary supplements in human and animal nutrition.
Ginkgo biloba (GB) leaves and extracts have been recognized worldwide for its renowned nutritional and medicinal properties. GB tree is highly grown and used in Asian and South American countries unlike Nigeria. In this study, we examined the nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of GB leaves (whole dried, and aqueous and ethanol extracts) grown in Nigeria. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method was used to determine the proximate and vitamin compositions while Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to analyze the minerals. Anti-nutrients analysis was done using gas chromatography. The results of analyses on whole dried leaves showed that the nutritional composition was high in carbohydrate (59.70+1.02mg/100g) and energy value (287.00+2.59Kcal/g) and low in protein (6.65+0.38mg/100g), lipid (2.40+0.14mg/100g), fibre (2.50+0.21mg/100g) and moisture (15.65+0.38mg/100g). High concentrations was also observed for vitamins A (79.75+9.05), C (79.20+2.56) and E (59.31+2.84) while vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and B12 (1.53+0.04, 2.98+0.62, 2.44+0.25, 3.57+0.24 and 0.28+0.01 mg/100g) respectively, were found in lower concentrations. The mineral analysis also showed high concentrations in macro minerals especially calcium and magnesium (24.620+0.410 and 18.450+0.28mg/100g) followed by phosphorous (4.896+0.003mg/100g), potassium (4.332+0.000mg/100g), and sodium (2.340+0.001mg/100g). The concentrations in micro minerals were iron (6.667+0.003mg/100g), zinc (1.851+0.001mg/100g), manganese (0.626+0.025mg/100g), copper (0.640+0.000mg/100g) and selenium (0.391+0.003mg/100g). However, the absence of molybedenum (Mo) in the leaves was observed. The calcium/phosphorous and sodium/potassium ratios were 5.029+0.087 and 0.540+0.000 mg/100g respectively. The anti-nutrients analysis of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaf showed low concentrations of phytate, oxalate and tannin. The low concentrations observed are considered to be non-toxic to man. These investigations have revealed the nutritional potentials of Ginkgo biloba leaves grown in Nigeria. The findings therefore, will be useful for nutritional and medical practice in Nigeria and beyond for maintenance of good health of individuals.
Lindane (C6H6Cl6) an organochlorine pesticide has been used in agriculture and domestic purposes for several years. The aim of present study was to analyze the oxidative effect of lindane which caused biochemical and ultrastructural changes in adult male wistar rats and to evaluate the possible protective effect of Curcumin (C21H20O6). Tissues damage was assessed by histopathological observation. Curcumin plays an important role as an antioxidant and consequently expected to protect tissues from damage caused by reactive oxygen metabolites. Rats were divided into seven groups. Group-A, was given normal diet and water ad libitum. Lindane (30 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally for 14 and 28 days in group- B and group-C respectively. Curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight) was given to Group-D and Group-E. Lindane (30 mg/kg body weight) along with Curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally for 28 days in group-F. Group-G, was allowed to metabolize after 14 days of exposure to lindane. Lindane administration lead to a significantly (P<0.001) increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) associated with reduction in levels of GSH (Glutathione), activity of SOD (Super Oxide Dismutase), CAT (Catalase) and GST (Glutahione-S-transferase). Pre-feeding and post-feeding of Curcumin resulted in decreased hepatic levels of lipid peroxides (LPO) and increased GSH (C10H17N3O6S), SOD, CAT (Catalase) and GST (Glutahione-S-transferase) activities. Results revealed that Curcumin in combination with lindane partially or totally alleviated its toxic effects on the studied parameters. In conclusion, Curcumin have beneficial effects and could be able to antagonize lindane toxicity.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics including resins that line food and beverage containers. BPA is known to leach from these products into containerized foods and drinks, and is therefore thought to be routinely ingested. In this present study the possible effect of BPA on blood lipid metabolism were investigated in rats. Female albino Wistar rats were administrated oral doses of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 µg BPA/kgbw/day once to determine effect of acute exposure and repeatedly for seven days in another set of test animals to determine the effects of sub-chronic exposure. Following the treatment, serum levels of lipid parameters were examined using the Chemwell Chemical Analyser. All data were expressed as means ± SD. The result of the study revealed that BPA increased blood triglycerides and LDL of exposed rats at both acute and sub-chronic phases.
Body weight is the total mass or weight of a person or animal obtained without any external factor than the component of the body. Overweight or underweight may influence the fertility status of either animal or human as the case may be. The aim of this study is to determine whether weight loss has any correlation with male or female infertility. Twenty four Wister albino rats were sleep deprived and used in this study. The albino rats were certified healthy before sleep deprivation. Body weight of the rats were measured before and after sleep deprivation. The pre sleep deprivation body weight values of the albino rats served as control for weight loss. Serum specimen was also collected from the rats before and after sleep deprivation for the assay of some fertility hormones. The pre sleep deprivation assay results of the fertility hormones equally served as control for post sleep deprivation status of the fertility hormones. The fertility hormones assayed include follicle stimulation hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), Prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Testosterone and estradiol. The results showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in body weight of albino rats after sleep deprivation when compared with the control. There were significant decreases (P<0.05) in testosterone, estradiol, prolactin and TSH serum levels after sleep deprivation when compared with their controls respectively, while there were no significant changes (P>0.05) in the serum level of FSH and LH. These results indicate that all other relevant factors being equal, body weight loss has negative effect on male and female fertility, using body weight and fertility hormone as indices.
Some biochemical and haematological changes have been reported in malaria parasitemic pregnant women in urban and rural malaria-endemic areas, indicating different oxidative status of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some antioxidant vitamins in symptomatic malaria parasitemic pregnant women to re-appraise the need and extent of vitamin supplementations in this condition. It is a cross-sectional study done between September, 2011 and March, 2012. The study involved 119 pregnant women aged between 24 and 36years, who presented in antenatal clinics with full symptoms of malaria infection. They were within the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Malaria density was determined by absolute malaria parasite count while the vitamins (A, C and E) were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. Our results showed that vitamin A concentrations in controls, mild and moderate malaria densities were 16.48 ± 0.75µg/ml, 15.72 ± 0.58µg/ml and 16.19 ± 1.40µg/ml respectively, vitamin C were 31.31 ± 0.97mg/dL; 38.33 ± 2.73mg/dL and 52.17mg/dL respectively while vitamin E were 0.89 ± 0.09mg/dL; 2.05 ± 0.27mg/dL and 3.32 ± 0.23mg/dL respectively. The results indicated that there were no significant changes in vitamin A while vitamins C and E increased significantly as malaria density increased. The changes in these vitamins are indications of increased endogenous mobilization to fight oxidative stress. We opine that the results are suggestive of extra oxidative stress in symptomatic malaria parasitemia, and that inadequate concentrations of these antioxidants can potentiate the virulence of these parasites.
Twenty (20) adult albino mice were used in the study to determine the effect of methanolic seed extract of Persea Americana on prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test. The mice were obtained and kept for 2 weeks to acclimatize. They were weighed and divided into 5 groups. Group A served as control without the extract. Groups B to E were orally administered with graded doses of 200mg, 400 mg, 800 mg and 1600mg/kg body weight per mice daily for 28 days. Blood samples were collected through the median canthus into ti-sodium citrate anticoagulant containers for the analysis of PT and APTT, using standard operative procedure. The analysis was carried out at the Haematology Laboratory of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu. The results showed a prolonged APTT time at all the doses of the extract when compared with the control (P<0.05). The prothrombin time at the dosage of 200mg/kg did not differ when compared with the control (P>0.05). The increase in PT and APTT was dose dependent. This result pattern suggests that the extract causes prolonged prothrombin time and APTT at various concentrations possibly due to its high potassium content. The extract can be recommended in anticoagulant therapy since it prolongs PT and APTT.
Studies have shown that vitamin-A supplementation has beneficial effect on iron deficiency anaemia. The adequacy or otherwise of this supplementation and the effect this has on iron and vitamin-A status in maternal and cord blood was therefore the focus of this study. Fifty-three (53) maternal and cord blood samples were used with twenty age-matched control samples from non-pregnant women Informed consent was given by all the subjects and ethical clearance was obtained from the ethics committee of the institution before the commencement of the study. Haemoglobin (Hb) level, vitamin A, total iron binding capacity and serum iron were all estimated using standard operative procedures. The result showed a significantly higher level of iron and vitamin A(P<0.05) for the control over the test and significantly lower level of total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) (P<0.05). Cord blood vitamin-A and iron were significantly elevated over the maternal blood while the TIBC were lower (P<0.05). Inspite of this significant difference, there was a positive correlation between the TIBC, serum iron and vitamin-A levels of maternal and cord blood samples. Both vitamin-A and serum iron of the group with low haemoglobin were significantly lower when compared with the rest of the test groups. Increased vitamin-A and iron supplementation may therefore be required for pregnant women with low haemoglobin to prevent infant and maternal mortality in developing countries.
Thirty five Wister albino rats were used in this research work. Twenty four of the albino rats were successfully sleep deprived and used as test group while eleven were not sleep deprived and used as control group. These rats were respectively sleep deprived for fourteen days using single platform sleep deprivation technique. The rats, both the sleep deprived and non sleep deprived were sacrificed by euthanization technique after the sleep deprivation period. Brain tissue of every rat was extracted by surgical dissection. Part of the brain tissues were homogenized and assayed for prion protein while a part of each brain tissue was histologically treated for the brain tissue morphological studies. The results presented evidence of the presence of prion protein (PrP) in the albino rats when compared with the commercial PrP positive control used. The results also showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the PrP concentration after sleep deprivation when compared with the non sleep deprived control group but when compared with the commercial positive PrP control group, there was a significant decrease (P<0.05). The brain tissue micrograph showed neither abnormal cell morphology nor evidence of amyloid protein plaques. These results suggest that although there was a significant increase in prion protein concentration due to 14 days sleep deprivation, there was no abnormal protein conformation or protein misfolding due to sleep deprivation stress.
Cement loading has remained a major source of income for low-income, able-bodied men, although many ailments have been linked to cement dust exposure. To investigate the effects of cement dust on haematological parameters of cement loaders in Enugu Metropolis. Sixty (60) adult males, aged 25-40 years, comprising of 30 cement loaders who have loaded cement for at least 3 years and 30 apparently-healthy, age-matched non-cement loaders (controls) participated in this study. Three (3.0) ml of venous blood samples were collected from each participant into Tri-potassium Ethylene-diamine tetra acetic acid (K2EDTA) anticoagulant containers for haematological analysis using standard operative procedure. SPSS version 15.0 was used for the statistical analysis and the test of significance was calculated using student\'s t-test. The results revealed significantly decreased haemoglobin, haematocrit and neutrophil, and significantly (p<0.05) increased lymphocyte and platelet when compared with the controls (p<0.05). This result pattern demonstrates that cement dust does not only affect respiratory system but could also alter some haematological parameters and white blood cell (WBC) differentials of cement loaders. Haematological assessment may be included in periodic monitoring of the health status of industrial workers exposed to cement dust.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology