With more than 7000 chemical compounds, cigarette smoke; represents a major environmental risk to the health of the mother and her fetus. Nicotine is the main alkaloid of tobacco and is responsible for its addiction. The aim of our study is to assess the effects of nicotine on the uterus and the ovary of pregnant female rats. WISTAR rats with regular estrous cycles were divided into two equal groups; a control group and a group receiving 1mg/kg of nicotine daily from day 1 to day 19 of gestation. The rats were anesthetized, and their uteri and ovaries were removed, weighed, and histologically examined. Serum estrogen and progesterone determinations were also performed. Our results showed nicotine-induced endometrial atrophy, follicular degeneration, and a significant decrease in uterine weight and estrogen levels. Through these results, we suggest that gestational exposure of rats to nicotine affects steroidogenesis resulting in endometrial damage and follicular degeneration.
Enrichment of environmental conditions of laboratory mice model in mostin-vivo studies may be attributed to quantity and quality of data output. Despite reports on the welfare of Mus musculus (albino mice), there is a dearth of studies comparing standard breeding of this specie in an enriched group (EG) and an Un-enriched group (UG). The study examined productivity by breeding Mus musculus under standard laboratory conditions, using a comparison of this specie in proper (enriched) versus poor (un-enriched) conditions. Six male and female mice (20 to 25g)were immaculately housed, fed, grouped into 2 (EG and UG), and bred using 2 phases of a trio system (one male and two females) for 12 weeks (84 days). Results inferred the production of more litters in EG (18/19) than UG, (12/14), respectively, and more females’ production than males in both groups for both phases. The number of cannibalized litters was more in UG (5 litters were cannibalized with a 71.4 to 91.7 % survival rate) compared to EG (1 litter was cannibalized with a 94.7 to 100% survival rate), during both phases. A significant (p < 0.05) difference was observed in the volume of water consumed and the average weight of mice in EG, when compared to UG. However, no significant (p > 0.05) difference was observed in the feed consumption of the two groups. The temperature readings (33.53±0.16 / 34.89 ±0.21) of clinical and mercury in glass thermometers of both groups revealed no significant difference. Thus, the enriched group of laboratory mice appears to be more productive than the un-enriched group during the breeding period
Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic recurrent bowel disorders. They usually occur in children and young adults. It is an uncommon condition in the elderly. This work is aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and disease course of CrohnDisease in elderly patients and to compare them with the clinical characteristics of younger patients in a population from Western Algeria region. It was a retrospective comparative survey of 35 elderly patients whose age was>60 years diagnosed during the period from 2007 to 2020 at the level of general surgery departments and university hospital centers in the Western Algeria region.The study included 437 CrohnDisease patients involving 35 elderly and 402 young adults. The mean age of the elderly patients was 65.48±11.43. The most noted localization was colonic in the Elderly with a rate of 23 (65.7%)/P= 0.002, while it was ileo-caecal in 236Young patients (58.7%)/P= 0.005. The majority of elderly patients, complained of abdominal pain 28 (80%), cessation of matter and gas 18 (51.4%), vomiting 13 (37.1%), weight loss 06 (17.1%), and diarrhea 05 (14.3%). During the follow-up period, medical therapy was the same for both groups. Moreover, 29 (82.8%) of the elderly patients underwent surgical treatment compared to 295 (73.4%) of the young patients. The number of patients with extra-intestinal manifestations in the elderly group was significantly higher than in the young group. Through our results, it seems that Crohn's disease in the elderly generally follows the same clinical pattern as in young people, with some exceptions.
A.barbadensisis a folkloric medicinal plant used for decades to treat several ailments such as intestinal ulcers, gynaecological problems, wound healing, ringworm and eczema. Other uses of A. barbadensis include impotence, low libido, appetite disorder, emmenagogue, pile, asthma, cough and jaundice. This study was aimed at determining the safety of the ethanol extract of Aloe barbadensis root using haematological, and lipid parameters. A. barbadensis root extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and control (distilled water, 0.2mL/kg) were administered to sixty male Wistar rats (150-270 g body weights) for 14 days. The haematological parameters were determined using the collected whole blood and lipid profile assessed using the serum. The oral administration of the extract on red blood cells and white blood cells, as well as other haematological indices (haemoglobin, Platelets crit (PCT), mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, granulocytes, lymphocytes, Platelets crit and monocytes), were significantly(p<0.05) not altered. A non-significant (p>0.05) effect of the extract on high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) was observed in the serum of the male rats. The results indicate that within the doses used in the study, the ethanol extract of A. barbadensis root is relatively non-toxic with no significant localized toxicity. However, the root of A. barbadensis should be cautiously used because of its selective effect on some lipid parameters in the male rats.
The survey was carried out in 2017 in the city of Sidi Bel Abbes and the two municipalities of Sidi Khaled and Sidi Lahcene (Western Algeria) on five plants of the Lamiaceae family (Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber., Phlomis crinita Cav., Sideritis incana L., Salvia argentea L., Rosmarinus officinalis L.). The study validated traditional medicinal information and directions for the use and diseases treated for the five plants in the survey population of 600 people (70% are women), with a predominance in people of -20 to 35 years, with a rate of (75%). Based on the survey, we found that rosemary is the most used with a rate of 57%, and most of our plants are used in the form of herbal tea with the infusion method of dried leaves. The diseases most frequently treated by our studied plants are crapaudine for cholesterol and digestive tract conditions. Ivette is better for osteoarticular conditions while rosemary is better for respiratory ones and cholesterol, the sage is better for respiratory ones, and sage from Jerusalem is better for dermatological conditions.
Ethnomedicine provides a basic understanding of plant medicinal properties. The identification and standardization of active compounds in any medicinal plant are critical for the production of new drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical constituents and biosafety of the extract from Icacina trichantha. Oliv. (Icacinaceae) seed. Phytoconstituents of the plant material were assayed using standard biochemical methods and GCMS analytical procedures. Acute toxicity test was performed according to the standard method, while sub-acute toxicity was determined by assessing haematological parameters in grouped rats, and was administered single daily doses of 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of the extract for 14 consecutive days. Findings from the study revealed notable phytochemicals in sufficient amounts; while in the GCMS, phytocompounds like erucic acid, hexadecanoic acid, stearic acid and phytol were identified. Physicochemical analysis on the studied plant material had an appreciable amount of moisture (14.00%), crude lipid (2.92%), crude fibre (1.75%), proteins (5.25%), ash (12.26%) and carbohydrates (31.82%). The plant also had pronounced concentrations of notable vitamins. The result from the acute toxicity studies was assessed to be above 200 mg/kg, while the 14 days sub-acute test revealed that there was an improving effect in all haematological parameters investigated without adverse interference. This study revealed that orally administered I. trichantha methanol seed extract was tolerated at a single-graded dose, LD50 above 200 mg/kg. The data obtained tend to support the biosafety of the plant extract as reportedly used in indigenous herbal home remedies.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure at different doses on male reproductive function in Wistar rats. To this end, animals were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=6). Gr1: control that received 1mL of ethanol (0.1%); Gr2: exposed to 0.0004µg/kg/day of BPA; Gr3: exposed to 0.004µg/kg/day of BPA; Gr4: exposed to 0.04 µg/kg/day of BPA;Gr5:exposed to 0.4 µg/kg/day of BPA;Gr6:exposed to 4 µg /kg/day of BPA. BPA was given daily by gavage for 60consecutivedays. The obtained results showed a significant decrease in the body weight and weight gain in the group exposed to the lowest dose (0.0004µg), while no significant changes were found in the relative testicular weightof rats. A significant decrease in sperm count, motility and viability was also observedin all BPA-treated groups compared to controls. A significant decrease in Testosterone levels was noted in all BPA-exposed groups but not the group exposed to 4 µg. The histological analysis showedmany morphological changes in the BPA-treated groupse.g detachment of germ cells from the basal lamina, degenerative changes in the germinal layer, decline in spermatozoa number in the lumen, apparition of cell debris in the lumen of tubules, and vacuolization of Sertoli cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate clearly that BPA exposure at different low doses (0.0004, 0.004, 0.04, 0.4,4 µg/kg/day) for 60 days induces serious adverse effects on the male reproductive function in Wistar rats.
Mastitis, caused by Escherichiacoli and Staphylococcus aureus, is a common infection in nursing mothers. Antibiotics (ATBs) are the mainstay of treatment for mastitis. However, given the potential for transfer of antibiotics from mother to infant, as well as the problem of bacterial resistance to synthetic ATBs, it is critical to develop new natural compounds with antibacterial properties. Thus, the aim of this work is to determine the phytochemical content, antioxidant capacity, and in vitro antibacterial activity of the hydroethanol extract of an Algerian propolis against the two above-mentioned bacterial strains, in comparison with four ATBs namely: Gentamicin (GEN), Cefazolin (CZ), Cefotaxime (CT), and Pipemidic acid (PI). Estimates of total polyphenol and total flavonoids revealed levels of 113.65±2.41 mg AGE/g DR, and 0.072±0.039 mg EC/g DR respectively. Evaluation of antioxidant activity revealed a significant ability to scavenge 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (IC50=2.95±0.70 mg/mL). Bacterial inhibition tests performed by the agar well diffusion method showed at the concentration of 5000 µg/mL a strong antibacterial activity with inhibition zones of 22.5±1.67 mm and 25.5±0.50 mm against E. coli, and S. aureus respectively, compared to GEN (31±1.00 mm and 35±0.50 mm), CZ (14.5±0.33 mm and 24.50±0.35 mm), CT (10.50±0.33 mm and 11±0.67 mm), and PI (06±0.00 mm and 35±0.50 mm) against E. coli, and S. aureus respectively. These results show that the efficacy of propolis extract exceeds that of the two ATBs belonging to the cephalosporin family (CZ and CT of the 1st and 2nd generation respectively) and the Quinolones family (PI of the 1st generation).
This work aims to the evaluation of the antifungal activity of dichloromethane essential oil of barks of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against black rot onions pathogenic fungi such as Penicillium sp and Aspergillus niger. The antifungal activity of essential oils of barks of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was tested in vitro by agar well diffusion method against plant pathogenic fungi strains vis Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus niger. The results showed that the essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum exhibited the highest percentage of growth inhibition (100%) against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp at (1% v/v) and (2.5% v/v) minimum inhibitory concentration respectively. The ability of the extracts to inhibit the growth of the fungi is an indication of the antifungal potential of cinnamon, which makes it a candidate for the production of antifungal agents. It can be applied in agricultural products for the development of transgenic resistance to plant diseases.
Myrtle (Myrtus communis) (Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine due to its therapeutic properties. The aim of this study is to test the prophylactic effect of both Myrtus communis hydro methanolic extract (HME) and Aqueous extract (AE) at a dose of 300mg/kg for 21 days. The results of the present study indicate that chronic exposure to cadmium chloride (Cl2Cd=18mg/kg) for 60 days induces a decrease in body weights and organ weights (liver, kidney, testis, and prostate) (p≤0.05). Thus, atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) highlights a significant accumulation of cadmium in the target tissues structures modifications compared with control rats. However, the administration of HME extract induces a considerable recovery of body weights, organ weights, and positive change in target tissues compared with the aqueous extract. These results suggest that hydro methanolic extract can be used as a curative remedy to help patients suffering from cadmium exposure.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology