Featured Papers

done_all Biological Sciences

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    PREVALENCE OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE-2 AMONG HIV-POSITIVE PATIENTS IN SOME AREAS OF KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Hayatudeen MR, Aminu M, Inabo HI
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time29 September, 2021
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    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are large double-stranded DNA virus that are proficient in promoting cell death upon infection and in establishing latency in sensory ganglia and replicating in epithelial cells during primary and recurrent infection. Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a significant public health problem being one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide and the leading cause of genital ulcerative disease (GUD) that is common both in industrialized and developing countries. The objective of this study was to survey Immunoglobulin G and M of Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 among HIV positives patients in Katsina State, by determining the sociodemorgraphic and risk factors associated with HSV-2 infection. A cross-sectional serological survey enrolling 125 HIV positive participants attending public health care settings in six local government of Katsina State was conducted. Serum samples were obtained from randomly selected subjects. Samples were tested using an IgG and IgM HSV-2 specific commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The overall prevalence of HSV-2 IgG is 74.4% and 40.0% for IgM ranging from 81.8% in Katsina, 81.3% in Daura, 69.2% in Malumfashi, 64.3% in Baure, 63.2% in Funtua to 82.4% in Dutsinma for IgG respectively while IgM recorded prevalence rate of 23.5% in Dutsinma, 36.4% in Katsina, 42.9% in Baure, 62.5% in Daura, 36.8% in Funtua and 42.3% in Malumfashi. HSV-2 prevalence increased with age and HIV positivity. These results demonstrate a high prevalence of Herpes type-2 positivity among the participants. We recommend improved health education regarding Herpes type 2 among the populace and increasing routine testing for Herpes type 2 antibodies to prevent HSV-2 related morbidity and mortality, particularly in immunocompromised patients.

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    HISTOPATHOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF LEDEBOURIA OVATIFOLIA ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED REFLUX ESOPHAGITIS

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Ndebia EJ*, Zweni L, Seipone ID, Mathulo S, Gondwe M.
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time5 August, 2021
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    Ledebouria ovatifolia is a plant known in isiXhosa as “Icubudwana” and is generally used by the Xhosa tribe in South Africa for medicinal purposes, including stomach-ache, diarrhoea, influenza, gargle and skin irritation. This study aimed at evaluating the healing effect of L. ovatifolia on experimentally induced reflux esophagitis. Reflux esophagitis was induced on rats by ligating the pylorus and the fore stomach. Animals were then autopsied 4 hours after the double ligation to examine the protective and deleterious effect of drugs. Prior to induction of esophagitis, different groups of rats were pre-treated orally with 100mg/kg L. ovatifolia, 200 mg/kg L. ovatifolia, 20mg/kg omeprazole and distilled water. Induction of reflux esophagitis caused marked increase of gross esophageal lesions, which corresponded with histopathological changes. Microscopic evaluation of ulcerated esophagus of L. ovatifolia pre-treated groups showed a reduced disruption of the surface epithelium at the lower dose. Higher dose of the plant extract showed an eroded esophageal mucosa with no recovery. The results suggest that L. ovatifolia could reduce the severity of reflux esophagitis and prevent esophageal mucosal damage. This may confirm its therapeutic use in esophageal reflux disease.

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    EVALUATION OF THE CYTOTOXICITY POTENTIAL OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CHRYSOPHYLLUM CAINITO USING THE BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Lumogdang LP, Bullong LQ , Nuñeza OM , Uy MM
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time22 April, 2021
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    Philippines has rich floral biodiversity accompanied by an abundant source of medicinal plants easily accessible in the locality. In terms of ethnomedical properties, Chrysophyllum cainito has been used to treat various diseases. In this study, C. cainito leaves were collected and evaluated for cytotoxicity using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay. The C. cainito leaves were extracted with water, 50:50 ethanol-water, and absolute ethanol to produce the decoction, hydro-ethanolic, and ethanolic extracts respectively. Four concentrations (10, 100, 500, 1000 μg/ml) of the extracts were prepared and tested. The mortality rates of the brine shrimp were observed after 6 and 24 hours. The results showed that all the prepared extracts exhibited active biological activities with the ethanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts exhibiting greater activities compared to the decoction. The ethanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts showed toxicity effects after 24-h exposures with LC values of 25.85μg/ml and 84.14μg/ml respectively. The results indicate that the use of absolute ethanol and 50:50 ethanol-water may have successfully extracted the bioactive compounds in the C. cainito that have acted on the brine shrimp. The presence of active components in the extracts indicated the potential of C. cainito as alternative medicine and hence requires further tests to qualitatively identify the bioactive compounds.

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    PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND HYDRO-ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF Calycotome Spinosa USING CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL EXTRACTION METHODS

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Zaoui O*, Oughlissi-Dehak K, Bouziane M, Zaoui F, Boudou F, Mostefai C, Hadj-Mahammed M.
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time10 April, 2021
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    This study was carried out to assess the main secondary metabolites contents and antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydro-ethanolic extract of  Calycotome Spinosa  plant using either conventional (maceration, reflux, and Soxhlet) and unconventional (Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE)) methods. The highest extract yields were recorded for MAE methods in both water (18.15%) and ethanol extraction (21.37%) respectively. MAE method showed the highest rate of total phenolic compounds TPC (168.24±0.79 and 182.60±1.29 mg CE/g DR) and total flavonoids (16.38±1.17 and 28.94 ±0.67 mg CE/g DR) contents in both water and hydro-ethanol extracts respectively. While, the highest tannin content was recorded for maceration and MAE methods (18.90±2.82 and 23.01±2.20 mg CE/g DR) in aqueous and hydro-ethanolic extracts respectively. MAE method exhibited a significant ability to scavenge DPPH radical (IC50= 0.51 ± 0.39, and 0.34 ±0.48 mg/mL) in both water and hydro-ethanol respectively. We conclude that MAE was more effective as an extraction method for C. Spinosa plant which allows a good extraction yield with a high rate of secondary metabolite and a high antioxidant activity.

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    THE IMPACT OF ALUMINUM CHLORIDE SUB-ACUTE EXPOSURE ON THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF MALE RATS

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): *Boudou F, Bendahmane-Salmi M, Benabderrahmane M, Benalia A, Beghdadli B.
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time23 December, 2020
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    In order to elucidate the Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) male reproductive toxicity mechanisms, twelve mature male rats were divided into 2 groups (n=6). The first group received orally AlCl3(34 mg/kg body weight) while rats from the second group, without any treatment, served as control. After 30 days of experimentation, AlCl3 exposure showed a significant decrease in body weight. Semen analysis showed a significant decrease in sperm count (4.58±0.65 × 106cells /mL),sperm viability (61.53±23.63 %), and a significant increase in morphological abnormalities (26.11±17.84 %), with a predominance of the head (14.54±8.38 %) and flagellum defects (14.22±20.60 %).Sperm DNA integrity analysis revealed a high percentage of fragmented DNA (69.05±4.36 %). Hormones analysis showed a significant decrease in serum testosterone (0.31±0.26 ng/ml) and an increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) (0.56±0.47 mUI/mL) levels, whereas, no significant changes were observed in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level. A significant elevation in testicular Malondialdehyde (0.16±0.015 µM/g) and catalase activity levels (69±14.29 mM H2O2/min/mg) were also observed. Degeneration of testicular epithelial and interstitial tissues was observed, with an increase in apoptotic cells, and an inflammatory state revealed by leukocytic infiltration in epididymal tissue. We suggest that sub-acute exposure to AlCl3 affects the Leydig cells which result in a decrease in testosterone level and an increase in LH level as a response to the interruption of testosterone negative feedback. Low testosterone level affects spermatogenesis and causes the appearance of an inflammatory reaction in response to the increased rate of apoptosis in the epididymal epithelial tissue.

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    HAEMATOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) FED VARYING INCLUSION LEVELS OF FERMENTED Tamarindus indica L. SEED MEAL

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Bashir AY, Yusuf I, Owojori AA, Mahuta SA
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time19 December, 2020
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    Soya bean meal is the most widely used feed ingredient for many aquaculture species. Tamarindus indica seed meal has also been reported to have a decent nutrient profile, which makes it a viable substitute for soya bean meal. The effect of replacing soya bean meal with fermented T. indica seed meal on some haematological indices of Oreochromis niloticus was assessed.  T. indica seeds were fermented and used to compound five diets (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% inclusion levels of fermented T. indica seed meal) and fed to the fish for 12 weeks. Growth parameters of the fishes were taken and haematological indices were measured following standard procedures after the experiment. The results revealed that the best diet apart from the control diet was D4 as it gave the best mean weight gain (8.58g) and standard-length gain (2.54cm). The haematological parameters of O. niloticus after feeding trial ranged from 40-25%, 8.33-13.34 g/dL, 28.00-35.20 x 106 mgl-1 and 110-480 x 103 mgl-1, for packed cell volume, hemoglobin, red blood cells and white blood cells, respectively. Red blood cells and white blood cells were observed to reduce with increase in inclusion levels of fermented T. indica seed meal. All haematological indices varied significantly (P<0.05).It was concluded that fermented T. indica seed meal replaced soya bean successfully at 75% inclusion level and has no adverse effect on the blood indices of O. niloticus.

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    TOXICITY OF PENDIMETHALIN (HERBICIDE) ON JUVENILES OF Oreochromis niloticus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Yusuf I, Bashir AY
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time16 December, 2020
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    Pendimethalin is a synthetic chemical primarily used as a pre- and postemergence herbicide against woody plants and broadleaf weeds. Pendimethalin contaminants surface water from aerial and groundwater application, runoff from rainfall and through irrigation. Aquatic animals are exposed to Pendimethalin via direct absorption through the skin, breathing through the gills and orally by drinking. The effect ofpendimethalinon O. niloticus was investigated following standard procedures. The experiment comprised of acute and sub-lethal bioassays. The acute bioassay with varying concentrations of pendimethalin 5, 6, 7, 8, 9mg/L and sub-lethal bioassay with concentrations 0, 0.46, 0.70 and 1.40mg/Llasted for 96hours and 8weeks, respectively. Behavioural and hematological changes were studied in both phases. Behavioural changes exhibited in both acute and sub-lethal studies include air gulping, discolouration, haemorrhage, restlessness, and vertical positioning. Packed Cell Volume, Haemoglobin, Total White Blood Cells, Total Red Blood Cells values in the acute and sub-lethal exposed groups showed similar response. PCV, HG and TRBC decreased with increase in concentration while TWBC increased with increase in concentration of toxicant. Mortality in acute and sub-lethal studies showed a dose dependent increase. The highest mortality was 23 (9mg/L) while the lowest was 7 (5mg/L) for the acute bioassay. For the sub-lethal bioassay, the highest survival was recorded in 0.5mg/L (24) and the lowest was in 1.40mg/L (18). From the acute bioassay the LC50   for 96hours was 6.94mg/L. It was concluded that Pendimethalin is moderately toxic to O. niloticus juveniles therefore its use near water bodies should be restricted.

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    TERATOGENIC EFFECT OF SODIUM METABISULPHITE IN THE EMBRYOGENESIS OF Gallus gallus domesticus

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Lumogdang LP, Tonog GC, Adamat LA
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time5 August, 2020
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    The pinnacle of advances in food processing offered a tremendous advantage in the preservation of foods with the aid of food additives. One of the commonly used food preservatives is the derivatives of sulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite (SMB). In this study, the teratogenic effect of SMB is evaluated using the Chicken Embryo Test. The 2.5, 10 and 40 ppm of SMB were administered into chicken eggs using the standard procedure. The 40 samples of eggs were placed in a commercial incubator. After 5 days incubation period, the eggs were examined for specific developmental anomalies. The results showed that malformations and deformities were observed in chicken embryo and there were even suppressions of growth and development, especially in the 40 ppm concentration. Thus, the study has shown that SMB probably triggers teratogenic effects on the developmental stages in chicken embryo.

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    MICROBIAL PROFILE OF FERMENTING RAFFIA PALM SAP

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Ngumah CC, Umeh SI, Egwuo L
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time23 July, 2020
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    Raffia palm sap was analyzed for its microbial, pH, and alcohol components at different stages of batch fermentation for 96 hours. Microorganisms isolated during fermentation were Gluconobacter sp., Lactobacillus sp., Candida albicans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  As fermentation progressed, pH decreased from 5.4 to 4.6 (from 0 hours to 96 hours), while alcohol contents increased from 1.8% v/v to 6.23% v/v (from 0 hours to 24 hours), and then started to decline.  Candida albicans were not detected from 48 hours of fermentation; while Gluconobacter sp., Lactobacillus sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae persisted till the end of the fermentation period studied.  No significant statistical correlation (p>0.05) was observed:  between alcohol production rates and specific microbial growth rates; and among specific microbial growth rates.  Similarly, this study revealed no significant statistical correlation in population growth patterns among microbial isolates.  Results obtained from this study showed that most of the alcohol produced in raffia palm sap, fermentation occurred within the first 48 hours of fermentation; and though total microbial populations did not significantly change during fermentation, specific microbial populations were noticeably altered during fermentation.

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    SLIME PRODUCING MULTIDRUG RESISTANT BACTERIAL ISOLATES AND DIPSTICK ASSAY FOR NITRITE AND LEUCOCYTE ESTERASE IN URINE SPECIMENS OF ANTENATAL PATIENTS IN UYO, NIGERIA

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Akinjogunla OJ, Umo AN, Udoh MD
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time16 April, 2020
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    The slime producing multidrug resistant bacteria isolates and dipstick assay for nitrite and leucocyte esterase in the mid-stream urine (MSU) specimens of antenatal patients were determined using standard bacteriological technique, Congo red agar and urine dipsticks. Of the 245 MSU specimens collected from the subjects, 30.2 % had bacterial counts ≥ 105 CFUml-1, while 69.8 % MSU had bacterial counts ≤ 105 CFUml-1. The highest significant bacteriuria (SBU) was obtained among the subjects aged 21-30 yrs, while the subjects aged ≥ 41 yrs had the lowest SBU.  A total of 30 (12.2 %) and 42 (17.1 %) MSU were positive for nitrite and leucocyte esterase, respectively. The MSU specimens with the highest SBU and occurrence of nitrite and leucocyte esterase were obtained from the subjects in their second trimester. The subjects in their first trimester harboured the highest numbers of bacterial isolates (n=135), while those in their third trimester had the lowest numbers (n=112). The slime producing bacterial isolates in decreasing order was CoN- Staphylococcus spp (18.0%) ≥ S. aureus (15.0%) ≥ S. pyogenes / E. coli (14.0%) ≥ K pneumoniae (12.0%) ≥ P. aeruginosa (11.0%) ≥ E. faecalis (9.0%) ≥ Proteus spp (7.0%). S. aureus were highly sensitive to Ceftriaxone; S. pyogenes were moderately sensitive to Nalidixic acid; ≥ 75.5 % E. coli showed sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin, 72.0 % Proteus spp were sensitive to Gentamycin, while between 33.3 % and 41.7 % S. pyogenes and E. faecalis were resistant to Amoxicillin and Erythromycin. Of the 376 isolates, 107 were non-MDR isolates, while 215 were MDR isolates. Among the MDR isolates, 113 isolates were resistant to ≤ 4 antibiotics, while 102 isolates were resistant to between 5 and 10 antibiotics. The findings of this study showed the needs to continuously monitor the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of slime producing bacteria implicated in UTI and also endeavor to avert and/or curtail slime-associated infections.

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