Philippines has rich floral biodiversity accompanied by an abundant source of medicinal plants easily accessible in the locality. In terms of ethnomedical properties, Chrysophyllum cainito has been used to treat various diseases. In this study, C. cainito leaves were collected and evaluated for cytotoxicity using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay. The C. cainito leaves were extracted with water, 50:50 ethanol-water, and absolute ethanol to produce the decoction, hydro-ethanolic, and ethanolic extracts respectively. Four concentrations (10, 100, 500, 1000 μg/ml) of the extracts were prepared and tested. The mortality rates of the brine shrimp were observed after 6 and 24 hours. The results showed that all the prepared extracts exhibited active biological activities with the ethanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts exhibiting greater activities compared to the decoction. The ethanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts showed toxicity effects after 24-h exposures with LC values of 25.85μg/ml and 84.14μg/ml respectively. The results indicate that the use of absolute ethanol and 50:50 ethanol-water may have successfully extracted the bioactive compounds in the C. cainito that have acted on the brine shrimp. The presence of active components in the extracts indicated the potential of C. cainito as alternative medicine and hence requires further tests to qualitatively identify the bioactive compounds.
This study was carried out to assess the main secondary metabolites contents and antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydro-ethanolic extract of Calycotome Spinosa plant using either conventional (maceration, reflux, and Soxhlet) and unconventional (Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE)) methods. The highest extract yields were recorded for MAE methods in both water (18.15%) and ethanol extraction (21.37%) respectively. MAE method showed the highest rate of total phenolic compounds TPC (168.24±0.79 and 182.60±1.29 mg CE/g DR) and total flavonoids (16.38±1.17 and 28.94 ±0.67 mg CE/g DR) contents in both water and hydro-ethanol extracts respectively. While, the highest tannin content was recorded for maceration and MAE methods (18.90±2.82 and 23.01±2.20 mg CE/g DR) in aqueous and hydro-ethanolic extracts respectively. MAE method exhibited a significant ability to scavenge DPPH radical (IC50= 0.51 ± 0.39, and 0.34 ±0.48 mg/mL) in both water and hydro-ethanol respectively. We conclude that MAE was more effective as an extraction method for C. Spinosa plant which allows a good extraction yield with a high rate of secondary metabolite and a high antioxidant activity.
In order to elucidate the Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) male reproductive toxicity mechanisms, twelve mature male rats were divided into 2 groups (n=6). The first group received orally AlCl3(34 mg/kg body weight) while rats from the second group, without any treatment, served as control. After 30 days of experimentation, AlCl3 exposure showed a significant decrease in body weight. Semen analysis showed a significant decrease in sperm count (4.58±0.65 × 106cells /mL),sperm viability (61.53±23.63 %), and a significant increase in morphological abnormalities (26.11±17.84 %), with a predominance of the head (14.54±8.38 %) and flagellum defects (14.22±20.60 %).Sperm DNA integrity analysis revealed a high percentage of fragmented DNA (69.05±4.36 %). Hormones analysis showed a significant decrease in serum testosterone (0.31±0.26 ng/ml) and an increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) (0.56±0.47 mUI/mL) levels, whereas, no significant changes were observed in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level. A significant elevation in testicular Malondialdehyde (0.16±0.015 µM/g) and catalase activity levels (69±14.29 mM H2O2/min/mg) were also observed. Degeneration of testicular epithelial and interstitial tissues was observed, with an increase in apoptotic cells, and an inflammatory state revealed by leukocytic infiltration in epididymal tissue. We suggest that sub-acute exposure to AlCl3 affects the Leydig cells which result in a decrease in testosterone level and an increase in LH level as a response to the interruption of testosterone negative feedback. Low testosterone level affects spermatogenesis and causes the appearance of an inflammatory reaction in response to the increased rate of apoptosis in the epididymal epithelial tissue.
Soya bean meal is the most widely used feed ingredient for many aquaculture species. Tamarindus indica seed meal has also been reported to have a decent nutrient profile, which makes it a viable substitute for soya bean meal. The effect of replacing soya bean meal with fermented T. indica seed meal on some haematological indices of Oreochromis niloticus was assessed. T. indica seeds were fermented and used to compound five diets (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% inclusion levels of fermented T. indica seed meal) and fed to the fish for 12 weeks. Growth parameters of the fishes were taken and haematological indices were measured following standard procedures after the experiment. The results revealed that the best diet apart from the control diet was D4 as it gave the best mean weight gain (8.58g) and standard-length gain (2.54cm). The haematological parameters of O. niloticus after feeding trial ranged from 40-25%, 8.33-13.34 g/dL, 28.00-35.20 x 106 mgl-1 and 110-480 x 103 mgl-1, for packed cell volume, hemoglobin, red blood cells and white blood cells, respectively. Red blood cells and white blood cells were observed to reduce with increase in inclusion levels of fermented T. indica seed meal. All haematological indices varied significantly (P<0.05).It was concluded that fermented T. indica seed meal replaced soya bean successfully at 75% inclusion level and has no adverse effect on the blood indices of O. niloticus.
Pendimethalin is a synthetic chemical primarily used as a pre- and postemergence herbicide against woody plants and broadleaf weeds. Pendimethalin contaminants surface water from aerial and groundwater application, runoff from rainfall and through irrigation. Aquatic animals are exposed to Pendimethalin via direct absorption through the skin, breathing through the gills and orally by drinking. The effect ofpendimethalinon O. niloticus was investigated following standard procedures. The experiment comprised of acute and sub-lethal bioassays. The acute bioassay with varying concentrations of pendimethalin 5, 6, 7, 8, 9mg/L and sub-lethal bioassay with concentrations 0, 0.46, 0.70 and 1.40mg/Llasted for 96hours and 8weeks, respectively. Behavioural and hematological changes were studied in both phases. Behavioural changes exhibited in both acute and sub-lethal studies include air gulping, discolouration, haemorrhage, restlessness, and vertical positioning. Packed Cell Volume, Haemoglobin, Total White Blood Cells, Total Red Blood Cells values in the acute and sub-lethal exposed groups showed similar response. PCV, HG and TRBC decreased with increase in concentration while TWBC increased with increase in concentration of toxicant. Mortality in acute and sub-lethal studies showed a dose dependent increase. The highest mortality was 23 (9mg/L) while the lowest was 7 (5mg/L) for the acute bioassay. For the sub-lethal bioassay, the highest survival was recorded in 0.5mg/L (24) and the lowest was in 1.40mg/L (18). From the acute bioassay the LC50 for 96hours was 6.94mg/L. It was concluded that Pendimethalin is moderately toxic to O. niloticus juveniles therefore its use near water bodies should be restricted.
The pinnacle of advances in food processing offered a tremendous advantage in the preservation of foods with the aid of food additives. One of the commonly used food preservatives is the derivatives of sulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite (SMB). In this study, the teratogenic effect of SMB is evaluated using the Chicken Embryo Test. The 2.5, 10 and 40 ppm of SMB were administered into chicken eggs using the standard procedure. The 40 samples of eggs were placed in a commercial incubator. After 5 days incubation period, the eggs were examined for specific developmental anomalies. The results showed that malformations and deformities were observed in chicken embryo and there were even suppressions of growth and development, especially in the 40 ppm concentration. Thus, the study has shown that SMB probably triggers teratogenic effects on the developmental stages in chicken embryo.
Raffia palm sap was analyzed for its microbial, pH, and alcohol components at different stages of batch fermentation for 96 hours. Microorganisms isolated during fermentation were Gluconobacter sp., Lactobacillus sp., Candida albicans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As fermentation progressed, pH decreased from 5.4 to 4.6 (from 0 hours to 96 hours), while alcohol contents increased from 1.8% v/v to 6.23% v/v (from 0 hours to 24 hours), and then started to decline. Candida albicans were not detected from 48 hours of fermentation; while Gluconobacter sp., Lactobacillus sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae persisted till the end of the fermentation period studied. No significant statistical correlation (p>0.05) was observed: between alcohol production rates and specific microbial growth rates; and among specific microbial growth rates. Similarly, this study revealed no significant statistical correlation in population growth patterns among microbial isolates. Results obtained from this study showed that most of the alcohol produced in raffia palm sap, fermentation occurred within the first 48 hours of fermentation; and though total microbial populations did not significantly change during fermentation, specific microbial populations were noticeably altered during fermentation.
The slime producing multidrug resistant bacteria isolates and dipstick assay for nitrite and leucocyte esterase in the mid-stream urine (MSU) specimens of antenatal patients were determined using standard bacteriological technique, Congo red agar and urine dipsticks. Of the 245 MSU specimens collected from the subjects, 30.2 % had bacterial counts ≥ 105 CFUml-1, while 69.8 % MSU had bacterial counts ≤ 105 CFUml-1. The highest significant bacteriuria (SBU) was obtained among the subjects aged 21-30 yrs, while the subjects aged ≥ 41 yrs had the lowest SBU. A total of 30 (12.2 %) and 42 (17.1 %) MSU were positive for nitrite and leucocyte esterase, respectively. The MSU specimens with the highest SBU and occurrence of nitrite and leucocyte esterase were obtained from the subjects in their second trimester. The subjects in their first trimester harboured the highest numbers of bacterial isolates (n=135), while those in their third trimester had the lowest numbers (n=112). The slime producing bacterial isolates in decreasing order was CoN- Staphylococcus spp (18.0%) ≥ S. aureus (15.0%) ≥ S. pyogenes / E. coli (14.0%) ≥ K pneumoniae (12.0%) ≥ P. aeruginosa (11.0%) ≥ E. faecalis (9.0%) ≥ Proteus spp (7.0%). S. aureus were highly sensitive to Ceftriaxone; S. pyogenes were moderately sensitive to Nalidixic acid; ≥ 75.5 % E. coli showed sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin, ≥ 72.0 % Proteus spp were sensitive to Gentamycin, while between 33.3 % and 41.7 % S. pyogenes and E. faecalis were resistant to Amoxicillin and Erythromycin. Of the 376 isolates, 107 were non-MDR isolates, while 215 were MDR isolates. Among the MDR isolates, 113 isolates were resistant to ≤ 4 antibiotics, while 102 isolates were resistant to between 5 and 10 antibiotics. The findings of this study showed the needs to continuously monitor the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of slime producing bacteria implicated in UTI and also endeavor to avert and/or curtail slime-associated infections.
Fresh water fishes are commonly found in river, different ponds, lakes and canals. Fresh water fishes are the common shelter for various species of digenetic trematode parasites in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh). Fishes carry heavy infection of helminth parasites and serve as the potent source of these parasites. Fishes are gold coin of aquatic environment and play an important major role in economy of persons depending on the river as well as coastal areas. Their population rapidly dropped down due change in environmental conditions. We have studied helminth parasites of fresh water fishes river Gomti. (26°51'30" North 80°56'14" East). These parasites are abundantly found in river Gomti of Lucknow. Infection of these parasites may result in poor growth, postponed sexual maturity and mortality of fishes, and also cause human as well as different animal diseases due to weak association of host and parasites relationship. In this paper we have reported the seasonal fluctuation in the prevalence, intensity and relative density patterns and systematic taxonomical study of digenean in fresh water fishes from river Gomti Lucknow (India).
An investigation was carried out on the plasmid profile of Streptococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantanum isolated from a total of 120 Ogi samples collected from Oyingbo, a local market in Lagos State. Morphological, cultural, physiological characterization and API kits were employed to isolate and identify Streptococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantanum. All the isolates harboured plasmids ranging from 1-7 in numbers and 3kb – 21.5 kb in sizes. Distinct plasmid patterns were seen using the electrophoresis of plasmid DNA method. In this study, single strains and mixed cultures of the isolates were investigated for acetaldehyde production in yoghurt (fermented milk product) with the isolates using column trapping gas liquid chromatography technique. The results show that acetaldehyde production of the isolates were somewhat variable from strain to strain and hence could be used as starter cultures for yoghurt production with market acceptability.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology