The occurrence, virulence markers and antifungal susceptibility of vaginal yeast isolates from contraceptive users (CUs) and non-contraceptive users (NCUs) were determined using standard techniques. Five species of candida comprising C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis were isolated from the high vaginal swab (HVS) samples from CUs and NCUs. Cryptococcus neoformans was obtained only from HVS samples from CUs. There was no statistically significant difference (P ˃0.05) between the occurrences of yeast isolates among the CUs and NCUs. All HVS samples from the CUs aged < 20 yrs had isolates, while 80.0 %, 75.0 % and 60.0 % HVS samples from CUs with age groups of 21-25 yrs, 26-30 yrs and >31 yrs had yeast isolates, respectively. Among the NCUs, the highest and lowest occurrences of isolates were obtained from age group of 21-25 yrs and > 31 yrs, respectively. More than 62.5 % yeast isolates were sensitive to fluconazole, ≥ 32.5 % isolates were nystatin resistant, while between 50.0 % and 65.0 % isolates were sensitive to clotrimazole and itraconazole. C. neoformans and C. tropicalis displayed high sensitivity to clotrimazole and itraconazole, respectively. C. albicans (n=6), C. tropicalis (n=1) and C. glabrata (n=2) exhibited weak haemolytic activity, 50.0 % C. parapsilosis exhibited weak lipolytic activity, while C. albicans (n=9) and non-albicans Candida species (n=11) showed positivity for protease production. Though a large number of yeast isolates were sensitive to the antifungal drugs, intermittent antifungal susceptibility testings are necessary for monitoring trends of antifungal resistance among the pathogenic vaginal yeasts.
The effectiveness of cotton seed dextrose agar, groundnut seed dextrose agar and kernel dextrose agar in culturing fungi was studied by culturing fungi from yam rot (Dioscorea rotundata). The research demonstrated the choice of the isolated fungi to various media, and revealed that some of the isolated fungi showed the same occurrence in different media. Aspergillus flavus showed preference for kernel dextrose and groundnut seed dextrose agar than Sabouraud dextrose agar and cotton seed dextrose agar. Fusarium oxysporum showed preference to kernel and cotton seed dextrose agar. The occurrence of Rhizopus spp was only higher in Sabouraud and groundnut seed dextrose agar. In comparison of cultures, the cotton seed dextrose agar culture showed the highest growth of the fungi isolates (66.8±2.35%) while groundnut dextrose agar culture showed the least growth of the fungi isolates (49.8±2.35%). No significant difference in the growth of the fungi isolates was found between cultures (p>0.05). This research demonstrated that groundnut seed and cotton seed dextrose agar can be used to culture specific fungi of interest. Hence, they would provide suitable alternative media for culturing fungi of interest and reduce reliance on potatoes dextrose agar. The use of these media may provide promising interest in research where interest may be to identify, enumerate and characterize fungi.
Biodiesel production using homogenous catalysts associates with high energy consumption and production cost due to the complicated separation and purification of the products. In this investigation, a solid base catalyst, 10%K-CaO/MgO was synthesized, analyzed and used to produce biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil with methanol. The catalyst loading was 0.4 % mass of the oil while the transesterification times were 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes at 60oC. The methyl esters yields were 94.20, 92.00, 82.13, 82.81 and 82.09 % respectively. There was no glycerol in any of the five products. Transesterification time of 20 minutes was found to be enough to produce biodiesel. The catalyst used in this study was capable of producing biodiesel without co-product glycerol. This process is less expensive compared to homogenous process.
The flesh and shell of the West African Mud creeper, Tympanotonus fuscatus var radula from Abule-Eledu Creek were analysed by Flame and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry for their contents of the macro-minerals: calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium, and the micro-minerals: iron, zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, lead and cadmium. The highest macro-mineral was phosphorus; 86±14.15 mg/100g in flesh and 67.05±18.85 mg/100g in shell, while the least was magnesium; 19.58±0.96 mg/100g in flesh and 35.3±0.64 mg/100g in shell. The shell of the investigated periwinkle was significantly higher (p<0.05) in content of calcium, magnesium and potassium than in the flesh. The concentrations of micro-minerals; copper (1.25 mg/100g), zinc (0.76 mg/100g), chromium (0.06 mg/100g) and iron (6.00 mg/100g) in the flesh samples were higher than the concentration in the shell and consequently higher than FEPA standard limits of these elements in sea food. It has been observed that Tympanotonus fuscatus var radula from Abule-Eledu Creek could provide a significant proportion of needed inorganic nutrients; these relatively high concentrations of trace metals give certain restrictions on the dietary intake.
Infertility in humans has rapidly increased prompting researchers to screen herbal extracts and formulations to improve fertility. The aim of this project is to ascertain the efficacy of Addyzoa and some local herbal fertility enhancers on sperm and their effects on some biochemical parameters. Adult Swiss albino male mice were placed in 11 cages of 5 animals each. Animals in cage 1 were administered only water i.e. control group, group 2 was administered Addyzoa, an Ayurvedic fertility enhancer while animals in groups 3 to 11 received local herbal fertility enhancers at different concentrations for 45 days. On the 46th day, the animals were sacrificed. Some sperm and biochemical parameters were assayed. In groups 3, 6 and 11, the animals showed significant (P≤0.05) increase in sperm count while groups 6 and 11 exhibited significant (P≤0.05) increase in sperm motility compared to groups 1 and 2. Photomicrographs showed different sperm morphological aberrations. ALP levels of groups 3, 4 and 6 was significantly (P˂0.05) low while ALT concentration of groups 7 and 11 was significantly (P˂0.05) low compared to group 1. Group 1 showed significant (P˂0.05) increase in AST concentration compared to groups 7, 8 and 10. These results suggests that the herbal boosters administered to groups 3, 6 and 11 improved the quality and quantity of sperm possibly by enhancing asthenozoosermia, increased sperm formation thereby increasing oligozoospermia, supporting and improving teratozoospermia and size thereby preventing DNA damage to sperms.
This study investigated the presence of van C, a vancomycin resistant gene in some Enterococcus spp. isolated from clinical samples from National Hospital, Abuja (NHA), a tertiary hospital in Abuja, Nigeria. The samples collected for the research included stool, urine, wound and environmental swabs which were cultured on bile esculin azide agar and the isolates were identified with microgen test kit. The susceptibility testing was done with vancomycin disks. Isolates that were resistant to vancomycin by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method were selected for minimum inhibition concentration using E-test strips. Their DNA was extracted to determine the presence of van C genes in 17 of the isolates having MIC of ≥ 4µg/ml and ≤ 8µg/ml. The van genes present were amplified by polymerase chain reaction.
Stress due to transportation and one week laboratory acclimation on the African catfish, Heterobranchus bidorsalis procured from New Calabar River, Aluu in Rivers State of Nigeria caused significant reduction of Red Blood Cell (RBC), Blood Platelet (BP) counts, Packed Cell Volume (PCV) as well as haemoglobin contents (HC ) p<0.05. Conversely, stress of transportation and acclimation led to significant elevation of total leucocyte (TL) counts, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) indices, blood osmolality and glucose levels (p<0.05).The reduction in erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts is as a result of reduced activity of haematopoietic organs due to stress of transportation and acclimation. The elevated glucose and white cell counts is attributed to alarm reaction, preparing the fish to defend itself against invading pathogens. Consequently, the body builds up a reserve of energy which ought to be expended. The stress of transportation and acclimation (handling, sorting, injury, overcrowding,) and poor water quality normally damage the mucous or slime layer that surrounds the fish. Under such a circumstance, H. bidorsalis, being a freshwater species, absorbs much of the acclimation water and this contributes substantially to the reduced haematocrit and elevated osmolality observed.
One hundred and twenty (120) 4 weeks old unsexed broiler chicken were used in a twenty eight days feeding trial to evaluate the use of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as a replacement for vitamin + mineral premix in finisher broilers. The birds were assigned to four treatment group with three replicates per group .The treatment groups includes T1, T2, T3, and T4 representing 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% inclusion levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as a replacement for vitamin + mineral premix. The result of the study showed that average final weight gain, average feed intake and feed conversion ratio differed significantly (P<0.05) in favour of T4 and T3 .The dressing percentage as well as organ (gizzard, liver and heart) weights also differed significantly(p<0.05). The study thus indicate that the inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaf meal at 5% and 7.5% can successfully be used to replace vitamin + mineral premix in finisher diet.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology