Featured Papers

done_all Biological Sciences

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    ANTIBACTERIAL ASSESSMENT OF VANILLIC ACID AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Adekola HA, Adeleye AO, Adesetan TO, Folorunso JB, Odeyemi FA, Adekola RA.
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time30 June, 2022
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    Phenolic compounds have been widely researched for their antibacterial activity throughout the years. Vanillic acid's antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli was investigated using a broth microdilution technique in 5ml sterile tubes. To get the minimum inhibitory concentration, the inocula was treated with vanillic acid in increasing quantities ranging from 150 g/ml to 2000 g/ml in the tubes. The antibacterial activity of the phenolic compound was further investigated using time kill susceptibility. The lowest inhibitory concentration found was 900 g/ml. During the time kill susceptibility evaluation, a substantial reduction in viable bacteria cells was also detected.This study's findings support the antibacterial activity of phenolic compounds and the antibacterial potential of vanillic acid. Further extensive research on vanillic acid and other phenolic compounds is recommended to provide more insight on the mechanism of antibacterial activity.Adoption of these naturally occurring antibacterial compounds for treatment alternativesfor infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria may provide a solution to the pharmaceutical industry's multi-resistance conundrum.

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    THE EFFECT OF ATRIPLEX HALIMUS L. AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE-INDUCED FEMALE HORMONE DISORDERS IN RATS

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Ghomid K , Hasnaoui O, Ammam A, Boudou F , Belakredar A.
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time30 June, 2022
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    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the most common circulating steroid in the human body and is an essential precursor hormone. Exogenous DHEA, on the other hand, has been shown to cause endocrine disorders in women. Indeed, the use of medicinal plants is of great help in the treatment of female disorders.Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the prophylactic and/or therapeutic effect of the aqueous extract of Atriplexhalimus L. on sex hormone balance.For this purpose, Female rats were subjected for a period of 21 days to a plant extract dose of 5g/kg body weight (BW)/day (D) either before or after receiving a DHEA dose of 60 mg/kg BW/D for 21 days.The results of the present study show that the administration of DHEA leads to a significant decrease in the level of the luteinizing hormone followed by a significant increase in the level follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol and progesterone. While treatment with aqueous extract of A. halimus L. either before or after DHEA exposure was able to regulate these hormones and counteract the adverse effects of DHEA supplementation.

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    The antioxidant and analgesic effect of red and white ginseng on Wistar rats

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): DEMMOUCHE Abbassia*, Bouazza Sofiane, HAMRI Dounia Douaa ; Labadi Khaled; Mekiou Zohra
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time29 June, 2022
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    Ginseng is a perennial herbaceous plant from the Araliaceae family which belongs to the genus Panax, especially cultivated in Korea, ginseng is recognized for its general tonic effect, useful for invigorating the body of tired or weakened people, in particular due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The present work is conducted to assess the importance of panax ginseng by evaluating its use in a targeted population, then determining the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of panax ginseng to study the antioxidant activity of ginseng and its impact on analgesic activity in male Wistar rats. First, information on the nutritional, therapeutic and cosmetic uses of ginseng was collected from 66 questionnaires. The second step is to evaluate the biochemical potential of the hydro-ethanolic extract of red ginseng and the aqueous extract of white ginseng in vitro and their impact on the antioxidant activity by the DPPH method, then the evaluation of the effect of two variations of panax ginseng on peripheral analgesic activity in male Wistar rats that were injected with acetic acid to induce abdominal pain. The investigation proved on the one hand, that ginseng is used as a treatment against: Depression, cardiovascular diseases and Diabetes. The antioxidant activity of the extract, by the DPPH method, showed that the red extract tested has a very high antioxidant potential, with an IC50 of 0.75 mg/ml. Comparison of white extract (IC50 of 6.03 mg/ml). The extract revealed a remarkable peripheral analgesic effect, Red Ginseng studied reduced the number of writhing from (46.7±10.0) to (12.3±5.0) with an inhibition rate of 73.66%. In addition, about the White Ginseng extract which has an inhibition rate of 66.8% with number of contortions (15.5±6.6). To conclude, we can say that there is a significant difference between red and white panax ginseng, moreover it is mainly used for therapeutic purposes. Although the benefits of this product are well known, it is not yet widely used. The biochemical potential, without toxic effect, shows a good content in phenolic compounds due to the variability of these botanical origins which explains its considerable antioxidant capacity.

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    ATTENUATION OF HESPERIDIN ON VANCOMYCIN-INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY IN RATS

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Olayinka ET, Kehinde SA, Ajayi BO
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time10 June, 2022
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    Vancomycin, a bactericidal antibiotic used for selective clinical infections confers its antibacterial activity via the inhibition of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. This process thus results in oxidative stress. Hesperidin, a flavonoid found in citrus fruits has been reported to possess antioxidant activity. This study investigated the ameliorative effect of hesperidin on vancomycin-induced neurotoxicity. Male Wistar rats (n=24, 130-300 g) were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group 1 (Control) received distilled water, Group 2 received Hesperidin (50 mg/kg/day) orally, Group 3 received Vancomycin (10 mg/kg/day)intraperitoneally and Group 4 received Vancomycin (10mg/kg/day) and Hesperidin (50mg/kg/day). The administration was done for seven days. Data were analyzed using ANOVA at P ≤ 0.05. Administration of Vancomycin significantly reduced the levels of Reduced Glutathione (GSH) and Ascorbic Acid (AA) in the brain sections of the rats relative to control. The activities of Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST), and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) were down-regulated relative to control. Furthermore, an increased level of Nitric Oxide (NO), Malondialdehyde (MDA), and activity of Myeloperoxidase (MPO) was observed relative to control (P ≤ 0.05). However, co-treatment with Hesperidin significantly attenuated levels of GSH, AA, NO, MDA, and activities of MPO, GST, SOD, CAT, and GPx when compared with Vancomycin treated groups. Histopathological examination of the brain sections of Vancomycin-treated rats showed the presence of lesions. Administration of Hesperidin alongside Vancomycin reversed these lesions. Data obtained from this study showed that Hesperidin attenuated oxidative stress induced by Vancomycin in the brain of rats via antioxidant mechanisms.

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    PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTIOXIDANT, AND ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF CAMELLIA SINENSIS

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): BOUDOU F*, BELAKREDAR A, ZAOUI O, SEHMI A, GHOMID K
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time25 January, 2022
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    Like many other aromatic plants, green tea (Camellia sinensis), synthesizes some benefic bioactive molecules that can be used to cure certain diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical composition, the antioxidant potential, and the in vitro antibacterial activity of C. sinensis infusion against two pathogenic bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae and Listeria monocytogéne). The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannin, ellagic acid, proanthocyanidins, saponins, and polyphenols. Total polyphenol estimation reveals a level of 213±10 mg AGE/g. While the antioxidant activity evaluation reveals a significant ability to scavenge 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (IC50%=5.57±0.08 mg/mL). The inhibition tests carried out by the disk diffusion and agar well diffusion methods showed a strong antibacterial activity with diameters varying from 16.33±0.45 to 22.67±0.44 mm using the agar well method and from 10.00±0.44 to 12.33±0.89 mm using the disk method against E. cloacae and L. monocytogéne respectively. This study allowed us to conclude on the effectiveness of Camellia sinensis against these two pathogenic bacteria.

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    BACTERIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROFILE OF COLIFORM ISOLATES FROM GROUNDWATER NEAR SEPTIC TANKS IN AGO-IWOYE TOWN, NIGERIA

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Egberongbe HA, Adekola HA*, Adebisi NO, Onajobi IB, Lawal LO
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time25 January, 2022
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    Groundwater sources generally regarded as safe source of drinking water, majority of the population in the developing world are vulnerable to fecal contamination as a result of proximity to septic tanks. Hence, this study investigated the physicochemical, bacteriological qualities and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of coliforms in from selected ground water sources located near septic tanks in Ago-Iwoye town. Physicochemical and bacteriological assessment were carried out and disc diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility test. Results from this study showed that 90% of samples were heavily contaminated with coliforms (Escherichia coli (30%), Klebsiella sp (30%), Salmonella sp (15%), Enterobacter sp (10%), Shigella sp (10%) and Proteus sp (5%)) with total viable counts ranging from 2 cfu/ml to 200 cfu/ml. Majority of the isolates were susceptible to antibiotics used in this study but resistance to augmentin was largely observed. All well water samples were non turbid, odourless and colourless with temperature ranging from 290C-300C, pH ranging from 6.5 -7.3, which was all in compliance with the WHO standard. This concludes that most well water samples in close proximity with septic tanks are unsafe for drinking or other domestic activities. The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria can lead to severe health issues.

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    PREVALENCE OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE-2 AMONG HIV-POSITIVE PATIENTS IN SOME AREAS OF KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Hayatudeen MR, Aminu M, Inabo HI
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time29 September, 2021
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    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are large double-stranded DNA virus that are proficient in promoting cell death upon infection and in establishing latency in sensory ganglia and replicating in epithelial cells during primary and recurrent infection. Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a significant public health problem being one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide and the leading cause of genital ulcerative disease (GUD) that is common both in industrialized and developing countries. The objective of this study was to survey Immunoglobulin G and M of Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 among HIV positives patients in Katsina State, by determining the sociodemorgraphic and risk factors associated with HSV-2 infection. A cross-sectional serological survey enrolling 125 HIV positive participants attending public health care settings in six local government of Katsina State was conducted. Serum samples were obtained from randomly selected subjects. Samples were tested using an IgG and IgM HSV-2 specific commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The overall prevalence of HSV-2 IgG is 74.4% and 40.0% for IgM ranging from 81.8% in Katsina, 81.3% in Daura, 69.2% in Malumfashi, 64.3% in Baure, 63.2% in Funtua to 82.4% in Dutsinma for IgG respectively while IgM recorded prevalence rate of 23.5% in Dutsinma, 36.4% in Katsina, 42.9% in Baure, 62.5% in Daura, 36.8% in Funtua and 42.3% in Malumfashi. HSV-2 prevalence increased with age and HIV positivity. These results demonstrate a high prevalence of Herpes type-2 positivity among the participants. We recommend improved health education regarding Herpes type 2 among the populace and increasing routine testing for Herpes type 2 antibodies to prevent HSV-2 related morbidity and mortality, particularly in immunocompromised patients.

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    HISTOPATHOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF LEDEBOURIA OVATIFOLIA ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED REFLUX ESOPHAGITIS

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Ndebia EJ*, Zweni L, Seipone ID, Mathulo S, Gondwe M.
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time5 August, 2021
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    Ledebouria ovatifolia is a plant known in isiXhosa as “Icubudwana” and is generally used by the Xhosa tribe in South Africa for medicinal purposes, including stomach-ache, diarrhoea, influenza, gargle and skin irritation. This study aimed at evaluating the healing effect of L. ovatifolia on experimentally induced reflux esophagitis. Reflux esophagitis was induced on rats by ligating the pylorus and the fore stomach. Animals were then autopsied 4 hours after the double ligation to examine the protective and deleterious effect of drugs. Prior to induction of esophagitis, different groups of rats were pre-treated orally with 100mg/kg L. ovatifolia, 200 mg/kg L. ovatifolia, 20mg/kg omeprazole and distilled water. Induction of reflux esophagitis caused marked increase of gross esophageal lesions, which corresponded with histopathological changes. Microscopic evaluation of ulcerated esophagus of L. ovatifolia pre-treated groups showed a reduced disruption of the surface epithelium at the lower dose. Higher dose of the plant extract showed an eroded esophageal mucosa with no recovery. The results suggest that L. ovatifolia could reduce the severity of reflux esophagitis and prevent esophageal mucosal damage. This may confirm its therapeutic use in esophageal reflux disease.

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    EVALUATION OF THE CYTOTOXICITY POTENTIAL OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CHRYSOPHYLLUM CAINITO USING THE BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Lumogdang LP, Bullong LQ , Nuñeza OM , Uy MM
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time22 April, 2021
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    Philippines has rich floral biodiversity accompanied by an abundant source of medicinal plants easily accessible in the locality. In terms of ethnomedical properties, Chrysophyllum cainito has been used to treat various diseases. In this study, C. cainito leaves were collected and evaluated for cytotoxicity using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay. The C. cainito leaves were extracted with water, 50:50 ethanol-water, and absolute ethanol to produce the decoction, hydro-ethanolic, and ethanolic extracts respectively. Four concentrations (10, 100, 500, 1000 μg/ml) of the extracts were prepared and tested. The mortality rates of the brine shrimp were observed after 6 and 24 hours. The results showed that all the prepared extracts exhibited active biological activities with the ethanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts exhibiting greater activities compared to the decoction. The ethanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts showed toxicity effects after 24-h exposures with LC values of 25.85μg/ml and 84.14μg/ml respectively. The results indicate that the use of absolute ethanol and 50:50 ethanol-water may have successfully extracted the bioactive compounds in the C. cainito that have acted on the brine shrimp. The presence of active components in the extracts indicated the potential of C. cainito as alternative medicine and hence requires further tests to qualitatively identify the bioactive compounds.

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    PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND HYDRO-ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF Calycotome Spinosa USING CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL EXTRACTION METHODS

  • person_outlineAuthor(s): Zaoui O*, Oughlissi-Dehak K, Bouziane M, Zaoui F, Boudou F, Mostefai C, Hadj-Mahammed M.
  • subjectCategory: Biological Sciences
  • access_time10 April, 2021
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    This study was carried out to assess the main secondary metabolites contents and antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydro-ethanolic extract of  Calycotome Spinosa  plant using either conventional (maceration, reflux, and Soxhlet) and unconventional (Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE)) methods. The highest extract yields were recorded for MAE methods in both water (18.15%) and ethanol extraction (21.37%) respectively. MAE method showed the highest rate of total phenolic compounds TPC (168.24±0.79 and 182.60±1.29 mg CE/g DR) and total flavonoids (16.38±1.17 and 28.94 ±0.67 mg CE/g DR) contents in both water and hydro-ethanol extracts respectively. While, the highest tannin content was recorded for maceration and MAE methods (18.90±2.82 and 23.01±2.20 mg CE/g DR) in aqueous and hydro-ethanolic extracts respectively. MAE method exhibited a significant ability to scavenge DPPH radical (IC50= 0.51 ± 0.39, and 0.34 ±0.48 mg/mL) in both water and hydro-ethanol respectively. We conclude that MAE was more effective as an extraction method for C. Spinosa plant which allows a good extraction yield with a high rate of secondary metabolite and a high antioxidant activity.

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