The survey was carried out in 2017 in the city of Sidi Bel Abbes and the two municipalities of Sidi Khaled and Sidi Lahcene (Western Algeria) on five plants of the Lamiaceae family (Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber., Phlomis crinita Cav., Sideritis incana L., Salvia argentea L., Rosmarinus officinalis L.). The study validated traditional medicinal information and directions for the use and diseases treated for the five plants in the survey population of 600 people (70% are women), with a predominance in people of -20 to 35 years, with a rate of (75%). Based on the survey, we found that rosemary is the most used with a rate of 57%, and most of our plants are used in the form of herbal tea with the infusion method of dried leaves. The diseases most frequently treated by our studied plants are crapaudine for cholesterol and digestive tract conditions. Ivette is better for osteoarticular conditions while rosemary is better for respiratory ones and cholesterol, the sage is better for respiratory ones, and sage from Jerusalem is better for dermatological conditions.
Ethnomedicine provides a basic understanding of plant medicinal properties. The identification and standardization of active compounds in any medicinal plant are critical for the production of new drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical constituents and biosafety of the extract from Icacina trichantha. Oliv. (Icacinaceae) seed. Phytoconstituents of the plant material were assayed using standard biochemical methods and GCMS analytical procedures. Acute toxicity test was performed according to the standard method, while sub-acute toxicity was determined by assessing haematological parameters in grouped rats, and was administered single daily doses of 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of the extract for 14 consecutive days. Findings from the study revealed notable phytochemicals in sufficient amounts; while in the GCMS, phytocompounds like erucic acid, hexadecanoic acid, stearic acid and phytol were identified. Physicochemical analysis on the studied plant material had an appreciable amount of moisture (14.00%), crude lipid (2.92%), crude fibre (1.75%), proteins (5.25%), ash (12.26%) and carbohydrates (31.82%). The plant also had pronounced concentrations of notable vitamins. The result from the acute toxicity studies was assessed to be above 200 mg/kg, while the 14 days sub-acute test revealed that there was an improving effect in all haematological parameters investigated without adverse interference. This study revealed that orally administered I. trichantha methanol seed extract was tolerated at a single-graded dose, LD50 above 200 mg/kg. The data obtained tend to support the biosafety of the plant extract as reportedly used in indigenous herbal home remedies.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure at different doses on male reproductive function in Wistar rats. To this end, animals were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=6). Gr1: control that received 1mL of ethanol (0.1%); Gr2: exposed to 0.0004µg/kg/day of BPA; Gr3: exposed to 0.004µg/kg/day of BPA; Gr4: exposed to 0.04 µg/kg/day of BPA;Gr5:exposed to 0.4 µg/kg/day of BPA;Gr6:exposed to 4 µg /kg/day of BPA. BPA was given daily by gavage for 60consecutivedays. The obtained results showed a significant decrease in the body weight and weight gain in the group exposed to the lowest dose (0.0004µg), while no significant changes were found in the relative testicular weightof rats. A significant decrease in sperm count, motility and viability was also observedin all BPA-treated groups compared to controls. A significant decrease in Testosterone levels was noted in all BPA-exposed groups but not the group exposed to 4 µg. The histological analysis showedmany morphological changes in the BPA-treated groupse.g detachment of germ cells from the basal lamina, degenerative changes in the germinal layer, decline in spermatozoa number in the lumen, apparition of cell debris in the lumen of tubules, and vacuolization of Sertoli cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate clearly that BPA exposure at different low doses (0.0004, 0.004, 0.04, 0.4,4 µg/kg/day) for 60 days induces serious adverse effects on the male reproductive function in Wistar rats.
Mastitis, caused by Escherichiacoli and Staphylococcus aureus, is a common infection in nursing mothers. Antibiotics (ATBs) are the mainstay of treatment for mastitis. However, given the potential for transfer of antibiotics from mother to infant, as well as the problem of bacterial resistance to synthetic ATBs, it is critical to develop new natural compounds with antibacterial properties. Thus, the aim of this work is to determine the phytochemical content, antioxidant capacity, and in vitro antibacterial activity of the hydroethanol extract of an Algerian propolis against the two above-mentioned bacterial strains, in comparison with four ATBs namely: Gentamicin (GEN), Cefazolin (CZ), Cefotaxime (CT), and Pipemidic acid (PI). Estimates of total polyphenol and total flavonoids revealed levels of 113.65±2.41 mg AGE/g DR, and 0.072±0.039 mg EC/g DR respectively. Evaluation of antioxidant activity revealed a significant ability to scavenge 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (IC50=2.95±0.70 mg/mL). Bacterial inhibition tests performed by the agar well diffusion method showed at the concentration of 5000 µg/mL a strong antibacterial activity with inhibition zones of 22.5±1.67 mm and 25.5±0.50 mm against E. coli, and S. aureus respectively, compared to GEN (31±1.00 mm and 35±0.50 mm), CZ (14.5±0.33 mm and 24.50±0.35 mm), CT (10.50±0.33 mm and 11±0.67 mm), and PI (06±0.00 mm and 35±0.50 mm) against E. coli, and S. aureus respectively. These results show that the efficacy of propolis extract exceeds that of the two ATBs belonging to the cephalosporin family (CZ and CT of the 1st and 2nd generation respectively) and the Quinolones family (PI of the 1st generation).
This work aims to the evaluation of the antifungal activity of dichloromethane essential oil of barks of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against black rot onions pathogenic fungi such as Penicillium sp and Aspergillus niger. The antifungal activity of essential oils of barks of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was tested in vitro by agar well diffusion method against plant pathogenic fungi strains vis Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus niger. The results showed that the essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum exhibited the highest percentage of growth inhibition (100%) against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp at (1% v/v) and (2.5% v/v) minimum inhibitory concentration respectively. The ability of the extracts to inhibit the growth of the fungi is an indication of the antifungal potential of cinnamon, which makes it a candidate for the production of antifungal agents. It can be applied in agricultural products for the development of transgenic resistance to plant diseases.
Myrtle (Myrtus communis) (Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine due to its therapeutic properties. The aim of this study is to test the prophylactic effect of both Myrtus communis hydro methanolic extract (HME) and Aqueous extract (AE) at a dose of 300mg/kg for 21 days. The results of the present study indicate that chronic exposure to cadmium chloride (Cl2Cd=18mg/kg) for 60 days induces a decrease in body weights and organ weights (liver, kidney, testis, and prostate) (p≤0.05). Thus, atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) highlights a significant accumulation of cadmium in the target tissues structures modifications compared with control rats. However, the administration of HME extract induces a considerable recovery of body weights, organ weights, and positive change in target tissues compared with the aqueous extract. These results suggest that hydro methanolic extract can be used as a curative remedy to help patients suffering from cadmium exposure.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of turmeric and black pepper on high-fat-diet-related biochemical and histological disorders in WISTAR rats. Fifteen male rats were divided into 3 groups (n=5), G1: control that received 350g/d of standard diet; G2: 350g/d of High Fat Diet (HFD) and G3: that received 350g/d of HFD supplemented with turmeric and black pepper (TBP) for two months. Our results showed that HFD induced a significant increase in total cholesterol and triglycerides. However, the HDL level was decreased. In addition, a significant increase in weight gain values and a significant decrease in relative testicular weight were observed. Moreover, the HFD significantly increased testicular oxidative stress expressed as Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substance (TBARS) levels. The histological analysis showed a decrease in sperm cells number in the seminiferous tubules lumen, and reduced seminiferous epithelium thickness in rats treated with HFD. On the other hand, TBP treatment was able to prevent HFD histopathological effects on the testes. In conclusion, our results indicate that TBP supplementation can effectively reduce the deleterious effects of HFD on the lipid profile and the testicular structure.
Phenolic compounds have been widely researched for their antibacterial activity throughout the years. Vanillic acid's antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli was investigated using a broth microdilution technique in 5ml sterile tubes. To get the minimum inhibitory concentration, the inocula was treated with vanillic acid in increasing quantities ranging from 150 g/ml to 2000 g/ml in the tubes. The antibacterial activity of the phenolic compound was further investigated using time kill susceptibility. The lowest inhibitory concentration found was 900 g/ml. During the time kill susceptibility evaluation, a substantial reduction in viable bacteria cells was also detected.This study's findings support the antibacterial activity of phenolic compounds and the antibacterial potential of vanillic acid. Further extensive research on vanillic acid and other phenolic compounds is recommended to provide more insight on the mechanism of antibacterial activity.Adoption of these naturally occurring antibacterial compounds for treatment alternativesfor infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria may provide a solution to the pharmaceutical industry's multi-resistance conundrum.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the most common circulating steroid in the human body and is an essential precursor hormone. Exogenous DHEA, on the other hand, has been shown to cause endocrine disorders in women. Indeed, the use of medicinal plants is of great help in the treatment of female disorders.Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the prophylactic and/or therapeutic effect of the aqueous extract of Atriplexhalimus L. on sex hormone balance.For this purpose, Female rats were subjected for a period of 21 days to a plant extract dose of 5g/kg body weight (BW)/day (D) either before or after receiving a DHEA dose of 60 mg/kg BW/D for 21 days.The results of the present study show that the administration of DHEA leads to a significant decrease in the level of the luteinizing hormone followed by a significant increase in the level follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol and progesterone. While treatment with aqueous extract of A. halimus L. either before or after DHEA exposure was able to regulate these hormones and counteract the adverse effects of DHEA supplementation.
Vancomycin, a bactericidal antibiotic used for selective clinical infections confers its antibacterial activity via the inhibition of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. This process thus results in oxidative stress. Hesperidin, a flavonoid found in citrus fruits has been reported to possess antioxidant activity. This study investigated the ameliorative effect of hesperidin on vancomycin-induced neurotoxicity. Male Wistar rats (n=24, 130-300 g) were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group 1 (Control) received distilled water, Group 2 received Hesperidin (50 mg/kg/day) orally, Group 3 received Vancomycin (10 mg/kg/day)intraperitoneally and Group 4 received Vancomycin (10mg/kg/day) and Hesperidin (50mg/kg/day). The administration was done for seven days. Data were analyzed using ANOVA at P ≤ 0.05. Administration of Vancomycin significantly reduced the levels of Reduced Glutathione (GSH) and Ascorbic Acid (AA) in the brain sections of the rats relative to control. The activities of Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST), and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) were down-regulated relative to control. Furthermore, an increased level of Nitric Oxide (NO), Malondialdehyde (MDA), and activity of Myeloperoxidase (MPO) was observed relative to control (P ≤ 0.05). However, co-treatment with Hesperidin significantly attenuated levels of GSH, AA, NO, MDA, and activities of MPO, GST, SOD, CAT, and GPx when compared with Vancomycin treated groups. Histopathological examination of the brain sections of Vancomycin-treated rats showed the presence of lesions. Administration of Hesperidin alongside Vancomycin reversed these lesions. Data obtained from this study showed that Hesperidin attenuated oxidative stress induced by Vancomycin in the brain of rats via antioxidant mechanisms.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology