This study investigated the presence of van C, a vancomycin resistant gene in some Enterococcus spp. isolated from clinical samples from National Hospital, Abuja (NHA), a tertiary hospital in Abuja, Nigeria. The samples collected for the research included stool, urine, wound and environmental swabs which were cultured on bile esculin azide agar and the isolates were identified with microgen test kit. The susceptibility testing was done with vancomycin disks. Isolates that were resistant to vancomycin by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method were selected for minimum inhibition concentration using E-test strips. Their DNA was extracted to determine the presence of van C genes in 17 of the isolates having MIC of ≥ 4µg/ml and ≤ 8µg/ml. The van genes present were amplified by polymerase chain reaction.
Stress due to transportation and one week laboratory acclimation on the African catfish, Heterobranchus bidorsalis procured from New Calabar River, Aluu in Rivers State of Nigeria caused significant reduction of Red Blood Cell (RBC), Blood Platelet (BP) counts, Packed Cell Volume (PCV) as well as haemoglobin contents (HC ) p<0.05. Conversely, stress of transportation and acclimation led to significant elevation of total leucocyte (TL) counts, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) indices, blood osmolality and glucose levels (p<0.05).The reduction in erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts is as a result of reduced activity of haematopoietic organs due to stress of transportation and acclimation. The elevated glucose and white cell counts is attributed to alarm reaction, preparing the fish to defend itself against invading pathogens. Consequently, the body builds up a reserve of energy which ought to be expended. The stress of transportation and acclimation (handling, sorting, injury, overcrowding,) and poor water quality normally damage the mucous or slime layer that surrounds the fish. Under such a circumstance, H. bidorsalis, being a freshwater species, absorbs much of the acclimation water and this contributes substantially to the reduced haematocrit and elevated osmolality observed.
One hundred and twenty (120) 4 weeks old unsexed broiler chicken were used in a twenty eight days feeding trial to evaluate the use of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as a replacement for vitamin + mineral premix in finisher broilers. The birds were assigned to four treatment group with three replicates per group .The treatment groups includes T1, T2, T3, and T4 representing 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% inclusion levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as a replacement for vitamin + mineral premix. The result of the study showed that average final weight gain, average feed intake and feed conversion ratio differed significantly (P<0.05) in favour of T4 and T3 .The dressing percentage as well as organ (gizzard, liver and heart) weights also differed significantly(p<0.05). The study thus indicate that the inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaf meal at 5% and 7.5% can successfully be used to replace vitamin + mineral premix in finisher diet.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology