Several heavy metals found in cigarette smoke accumulate in body tissues and fluids and are very harmful to both active and passive cigarette smokers. The aim of this study was to analyze cadmium, lead and zinc in the urine samples of active and passive cigarette smokers in South-West Nigeria. About 10 ml of freshly voided urine sample was collected into a sterile universal container from each of the 250 active cigarette smokers and 200 passive cigarette smokers that live in south-West, Nigeria. The urine specimens were processed to determine the levels of cadmium, lead and zinc metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. There was a significant increase in the levels of urinary cadmium, lead and zinc among active cigarette smokers when compared with passive cigarette smokers (P<0.001). Cadmium was significantly raised among male active cigarette smokers when compared with female active cigarette smokers (P = 0.03). The measured urinary zinc level of passive cigarette smokers was significantly raised in male when compared with their female counterpart in this study (P=0.003). Cigarette smoking has been seen to be one of the major sources of inhaling heavy metals which are toxic and capable of causing oxidative stress to both active and passive cigarette smokers. The accumulation of these toxic heavy metals over time, can cause DNA damage and consequently result to degenerative diseases.
The retinoblastoma protein (pRb); gene appellation (shortened RB or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that stands dysfunctional in numerous major malignancies. Cervical cancer is another utmost common cause of cancer-related death globally between women folk. This study was aimed at investigating the expression of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in grades of cervical lesion. Two hundred (200) cases of archived formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues of already diagnosed cervical lesions and cervical carcinoma tissue blocks were selected for this study. Sections of 3µ thickness were cut for immunohistochemical staining technique. The immunohistochemical staining was semi-quantitatively scored based on percentage of cells that stained positive and the intensity of the staining. Photomicrograph was basically used for analyzing the expression, and comparative analysis of the data generated from the expression was statistically done. Frequency of data was calculated using Chi-square (x2). The expression of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) was found to be 95.3% in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I (CIN I) cases, 100% in CIN II cases, 85.4% in CIN III cases, and 60.8% in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases. The expression of pRb in CIN I, II, and III as well as SCC significantly reduced as the CIN cases matured to malignancy (p<0.05) with CIN III been observed with the least expression of pRb among CIN cases. The down-regulation of pRb observed in this study may indicate mutation of RB gene in cervical lesions and could be involved in cervical carcinogenesis
Extended Broad-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) is an enzyme produced by some bacteria which is capable of decomposing the third generation cephalosporins. Urinary tract infection (UTI) due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria has become widespread and resistance patterns vary nationally and internationally from one institution to another. This study examined the prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in individuals with UTI accessing health care services in two health facilities in Enugu metropolis. One hundred and forty-five (145) bacteria isolate from 133 individuals with positive bacteriuria were subjected to Single Disc and Double Disc Synergy Tests to screen for ESBL. Forty-nine (49) bacteria isolates (Staphylococcus aureus (n=5), Escherichia coli (n=15), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=3), Enterococcus faecalis (n=3) and Proteus mirabilis (n=7)) were positive for ESBL-producing bacteria accounting for 46.8% prevalence of ESBL-producing bacteria mediated UTI. The prevalence of ESBL producing bacteria induced UTI is huge and portends a great danger to the management of bacterial infections. Antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance surveillance should be institutionalized in management of bacterial infections in order to limit the spread of resistant strains and reduce antibiotics treatment failure.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is infection of the bladder, ureters, kidneys and/or Urethra, symptoms of which vary depending on its severity and the characteristics of an infected individual. This study examined the prevalence of UTI among individual with presumptive UTI accessing health care services in two health facilities in Enugu metropolis. Mid-stream urine samples were collected from 384 participants and analyzed bacteriologically using standard methods. The prevalence of UTI among the study participants was 34.6%., 133 out of 384 having positive bacteria urine test. Staphylococcus aureus (n=19), Escherichia coli (n=52), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=45), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=12), Enterococcus faecalis (n=9) and Proteus mirabilis (n=8) were isolated as a single or mixed culture. Escherichia coli was the most implicated in the study followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabilis. Prevalence of UTI in females was 63.9% and 36.1% in males. The married (56.8%) and the singles (34.1%) recorded higher prevalence of UTI compared with the widow/widower (6.0%) and the divorced (3.1%). UTI was comparatively high (33.1%) among the age group 25 – 34 years and low (27.1%) in those >64 years. Civil servants and participants with tertiary level of education had UTI prevalence of 41.4% and 38.3% respectively. There was a significant difference in UTI based on sex (p=0.001) and age (p=0.02), but no significant difference based on marital status, occupation and educational level (p˃0.05). The prevalence of UTI in the study was high with both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria implicated. Sex and age seem to play a significant role in UTI unlike marital status, educational level and occupation. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the UTI bacteria uropathogens should be investigated.
Cigarette smoking is the practice of burning cigarettes and inhaling the smoke that comes from them. Cigarette smoke elicits carcinogenic effects on the tissues of the body that are exposed to it. The aim of carrying out this study was to evaluate the buccal mucosa smears of active and passive cigarette smokers in Owo Town, Ondo State, Nigeria. About 150 subjects were recruited for this study, of which100 were active cigarette smokers while 50 were passive cigarette smokers. Active cigarette smokers that have not been smoking daily for at least 5 years were not included for this study and passive cigarette smokers who have smoked cigarette or any other type of tobacco products before were not included for this study. The subjects for both active cigarette smokers and passive cigarette smokers were given a questionnaire to fill; clean water was given to them to rinse their mouth before samples were collected from their buccal cavities with the use of a sterile spatula. Samples collected were immediately smeared on a clean frosted end slide, fixed in 95% alcohol, and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin and Papanicolaou stain. This study revealed that the prevalence of male involved in cigarette smoking is higher than that of females and there is a higher prevalence of youths actively involved in cigarette smoking in Owo town, Ondo state. The stained buccal smears of passive cigarette smokers revealed normal squamous epithelial cells with some smears showing scanty inflammatory cells. The stained buccal smears of active cigarette smokers revealed heavy infiltrates of inflammatory cells, increased nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, hyperchromatic cells, and squamous epithelial cells looking glycogenated with tiny spherical bodies on the cytoplasm suggestive of fungi infection. Cigarette smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral mucosal lesions majorly among active cigarette smokers.
Corona virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) was first reported on 27th February, 2020 in Nigeria and several infection prevention and control measures were put in place in Nigeria which have been affected by non-compliance, fake news and misconceptions in the past 6 months. This retrospective study was designed to determine point prevalence and case fatality rate of Covid-19 in Nigeria after six months to provide useful information for directions on Covid-19 infection prevention and control and facilitate research work. The study population includes 391,502 subjects tested in Nigeria for Covid-19 by NCDC as at 27th August, 2020. The work reviewed and analyzed the content of briefings, interviews and reports of Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) and Presidential Task Force on Covid-19 in Nigeria. The result showed a Covid-19 case fatality of 3.3% between 27th February and 4th May 2020; 2.3% between 27th February and 30th June, 2020; 2.3% between 27th February and 3rd July, 2020; 2.09% between 27th February and 27th July, 2020; 2.07% between 27th February and 5th of August 2020 and 1.9% between 27th February and 27th of August 2020. The result showed a point prevalence of 14.4% between 27th February and 4th May 2020; 19% between 27th February and 30th June, 2020; 19.2% between 27th February and 3rd July, 2020; 15.4% between 27th February and 27th July, 2020; 14.6% between 27th February and 5th of August 2020 and 13.6% between 27th February and 27th of August 2020. There was a higher point prevalence around June compared to the results obtained before June, towards the end of July, and August, 2020. There was also a higher case fatality between 27th February and 3rd July, 2020 but began to decline towards the end of July, 2020. At the end of 6 months (27th February to 27th August, 2020) of Covid-19 in Nigeria, there was a decline in both case fatality and Point prevalence rate with peak point prevalence rate around June, 2020 while the peak case fatality was between 27th February and 4th of May which gradually decreases from July 2020.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Syphilis (VDRL) infections are common among pregnant women and they pose a major risk to the fetus due to vertical transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL infection among pregnant women in Abule-Egba, Lagos State. A total of 150 pregnant women in Abule-Egba, Lagos state were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL. Prior to the collection of their blood samples, counseling session was held with every subject so as to give them information about what the test entails. 5 milliliter of blood sample was collected from each subject, centrifuged at 3,000rpm for 10 minutes and the plasma was used to determine the sero-prevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL using rapid diagnostic test kits. Post-test counseling was also carried out on all the subjects after the release of their results. The data gotten was analyzed by using SPSS version 20. The subjects had age range from 21 to 50 years old with a mean age of 31.54 ± 4.860. Sero-prevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL were found to be 0.7%, 3.3%, 1.3% and 0.7% respectively. HIV, HBV, HCV and VDRL infections among pregnant women are major public health problem; future intervention to reduce the vertical transmission should include early screening of these diseases in pregnancy and provision of preventive measures
Expression of viral seromarkers indicate viral infection or immunity while plasma cytokines and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) are biomarkers of pro/anti-inflammatory responses and anti-oxidative bioactivities respectively. This work was designed to determine possible expression of viral seromarkers and inflammatory responses in patients with decreased plasma Superoxide dismutase. Sixty-three (63) patients (Male-33; Female-30) aged 27-71 years, with decreased SOD, normal blood glucose who were negative to AFB test and Giemsa thick blood film technique for Plasmodium were studied as test subjects. Whereas seventy individuals (Male-35; Female-35; Age- 27 – 71 years) with normal SOD, normal blood glucose, and who were negative to AFB test, Giemsa thick blood film technique for Plasmodium and also did not express seromarkers of HIV, HBV and HCV were studied as control subjects. Identification of Plasmodium and AFB and estimation of blood glucose, SOD, plasma TNFα, and IL-10 were all done by standard operative procedures. The results in patients with decreased plasma Superoxide dismutase showed a frequency of viral seromarkers of 11.1%(7) Anti-HCV; 20.6%(13) Anti-HBe ; 20.6%(13) HBeAg ; 20.6%(13) HBsAg ; 3.2% (2) HIVag(p24)/Ab; 0%(0) Anti-HCV + HIVAg/Ab ; 3.2% (2) HBsAg + HBeAg + HIVAg/Ab and 20.6%(13) HBeAg + HBsAg + anti-HBe. Seromarker of hepatitis B virus was found to be more prevalent while 3.2% (2) of the patients expressed HBsAg + HBeAg + HIVAg/Ab. The frequency of viral seromarkers of hepatitis B virus was more than the seromarkers of hepatitis C virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus while seromarkers of both HBV and HCV were more than those of HIV. Only coinfection of HIV and HBV [3.2% (2)] was found in the patients expressed as anti-HBe, HBsAg + HBeAg + HIVAg/Ab. There was also a significant increase in plasma TNFα and a significant decrease in IL-10 in patients who expressed seromarkers of HBV, HCV and HIV which was more pronounced in patients who expressed HIV seromarkers and also in those who co-expressed HIV and HBV seromarkers(p<0.05). There was a significant decrease in the plasma SOD in patients who expressed Anti-HCV, anti-HBe, HBeAg, HBsAg, HIVAg-Ab, HBsAg+HBeAg+HIV and HBeAg+HBsAg+ anti-HBe compared with the results obtained in the control(p<0.05). Patients with decreased SOD expressed viral seromarkers including significant inflammatory response indicated by an increase in TNFα and decreased IL-10 which generally signify evidence of immune or inflammatory responses as well as evidence of active viral infection. Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) is therefore essential to prevent a decrease in blood Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) which is an important antioxidant that protects cells from oxidative damage.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) co-infection with virus may generate active viral process that may bring about inflammation and liver damage due to anti-viral host immune response especially in hepatotropic viral infections. This work therefore sought to investigate the expression of HBeAg, anti-HCV and HIVP24Ag-Ab in relationship with the evidence of anti-viral immune response in newly infected Mycobacterium tuberculosis patients. This study was carried out among forty-one (41) subjects (Female-17; Male-24) newly infected M. tuberculosis patients aged 46 – 64 years; those who expressed viral immunoserological markers were studied as test subjects while those who were not infected with HIV, HCV, and HBV were studied as control. All subjects were negative to Giemsa thick blood film test for identification of Plasmodium. TNFα, HBeAg, anti-HCV, and HIVP24Ag-Ab were determined by ELISA while ALT was determined by spectrophotometry. The frequency of immune serological markers in M. tuberculosis patients include 17%(7)HBeAg; 9.8%(4)Anti-HCV; 2.4%(1)HIVP24Ag-Aband 70.7%(29)M. tuberculosis patients not infected with HIV, HCV, and HBV. Plasma TNFα and ALT were significantly higher in patients with M. tuberculosis + HBeAg and M. tuberculosis + Anti-HCV compared with Mycobacterium tuberculosis patients not infected with HIV, HCV and HBV(p<0.05). There was a significant increase in plasma TNFα in patients with M. tuberculosis + HIVP24Ag-Ab compared with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis patients not infected with HIV, HCV, and HBV(p<0.05).There was a significant increase in TNFα and ALT in patients with M. tuberculosis + HBeAg compared with the results obtained patients with M. tuberculosis + HIVP24Ag-Ab(p<0.05). There was a significant increase in plasma ALT in patients with M. tuberculosis + HBeAg compared with patients with M. tuberculosis + Anti-HCV and also in patients with M. tuberculosis + Anti-HCV compared M. tuberculosis + HIVP24Ag-Ab(p<0.05). This study revealed viral immunoserologic markers in Mycobacterium tuberculosis patients as 17%(7) HBeAg; 9.8%(4) Anti-HCV; 2.4%(1) HIVP24Ag-Ab; and 70.7%(29) Mycobacterium tuberculosis patients not infected with HIV, HCV and HBV which caused antiviral immune response in M. tuberculosis patients as indicated by increased plasma TNFα – pro-inflammatory cytokine and ALT - a liver enzyme and an index of liver damage due to host immune response to especially hepatotropic viruses. Viral co-infection and the effect of anti-viral immune response may be prevented in Mycobacterium tuberculosis patients through adequate viral evaluation and vaccination against HBV and HCV.
Exposure to a low dose of silver has been considered safe but recent studies have shown that long-time exposure to silver is harmful. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of colloidal silver solution on the haematological parameters of albino rabbits orally treated with 2.5ml per day of the solution for 3 months and 6 months. Twenty-two Albino rabbits were grouped into two of 11 Rabbits. Group one (subjects) was treated with Silver solution for six months and fed with commercially prepared rabbit pellets and clean water, while the group two (control) was fed with only commercially prepared rabbit pellets and clean water for six months. The drug was administered to the subjects via the oral route. After three and six months of drug administration, blood samples were collected from each animal in the test groups and the haematological parameters were analysed and compared to the control group. Mean PCV was raised in 3months (35.09%) and 6months (39.27%) in subjects as compared with control (33.0%). Similarly, mean Hb increased significantly from 10.15g/dl in control to 11.28g/dl in subjects at 6 months (p<0.05). Mean RBC increased from 4.28x106µl in control to 5.39x106 µl in 3 months and 11.28x106µl in 6 months (p<0.05). A similar trend was also observed in WBC and platelets. On the other hand, the mean MCV decreased significantly from 77.18fl in control to 65.18fl in subjects at 3 months and 66.55fl at 6 months (p<0.05). Also, the mean MCH and MCHC decreased significantly at 3 months and 6 months in subjects. The deviation from the control of most haematological parameters of albino rabbits after exposure to silver solution for six months found in this study is evidence that long-time exposure to silver solution significantly alters the haematological parameters of the exposed animals
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology