High malaria burden has led to an increased use of insecticides in the tropical and subtropical regions. Pyrethroids chemicals, commercially available pesticides, are greatly in use these days, thereby resulting in an elevated production of free radicals in subjects which can result in oxidative damage. The influence of pyrethroids based insecticides on peripheral and bone marrow cells was investigated using adult wistar rats. A total of 36 Wistar rats were randomly selected for the study and divided into two groups, twenty one rats were exposed to 1.2%w/v pyrethroids insecticides and the remaining rats grouped as non-exposed. Each group was further subdivided into three groups as 7-days, 21-days and 42-days of exposure groups respectively. Afterwards, the peripheral blood cells, bone marrow cells and the level of biomarkers of oxidative stress were assessed. Data were statistically analysed and level of significance was set at p<0.05. The mean red cell indices were significantly increased in the 42-days pyrethroids exposure than the 7-days exposure group. There was also an increase in the levels of expression of catalase (CAT) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the exposed groups while superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed significant reduction. Exposure to pyrethroids insecticides caused significant alterations in the haematopoetic elements and the severity of this pathological effect correlated with the duration of exposure. Pyrethroids insecticides can therefore cause oxidative stress and inflammation as well as peripheral and bone marrow perturbation in rats when exposed to as few as 7 days.
One of the major problems in transfusion medical practice in the developing countries is the incidences of transfusion transmissible infections, especially viral infections. Some of these viral infections share similar transmission pathways, making co-infections of these viruses a possibility. We investigated the possible co-infection of two viral infections-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 1,490 blood donors in a Teaching Hospital in a south-eastern state of Nigeria. This number was made up of 1384(92.9%) males and 106(7.1%) females. Antibodies to these viruses were detected using ELISA methods. Our results showed that 12(0.81%), 9(0.60%), and 2(0.13%) were positive for HIV, HCV, and both HIV and HCV respectively. Greater percentage of females than males were positive for both HIV and HCV (2.8% and 0.65% for HIV and 2.8% and 0.43% for HCV) while age group 21-30 showed highest frequency (38.5%). We advocate for wider mandatory pre-screening of blood donors, increased public health education and enlightenment on modes of transmission of these viral infections, as well as counseling of donors before screening.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology