Sawdust, the major by-products of sawmills and an abundant wood-waste of ≤ 2mm particle size was used to produce particleboards through the binding mechanism of urea-formaldehyde, to minimize its potentials of posing environmental challenges, and study its suitability with urea-formaldehyde resin for the production of less expensive particleboards of acceptable standard. A known mass of the sawdust (3g – 8g) was first blended with 20cm3 of molten paraffin wax, and then with 30cm3 of urea-formaldehyde resin. The blend was molded into board under electrically heated hydraulic press at 150oC and 10 tons for 4 min. The physico-mechanical properties of the particleboard, including water absorption, thickness swell, density, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, specific strength and hardness, were investigated using the conventional methods, and were found satisfactory with reference to the Bureau of Indian Standards and Australian standards for thin particleboards. The properties of the particleboards were dependent on the ratio of the sawdust to the urea-formaldehyde resin. The boards are easily produced and cost effective, and should be an inexpensive alternative for wood panel producers and users because, the end-use application of particleboard is subject to the properties, ease of preparation and cost.
Winged reproductive termite (Macrotermes bellicosus) was collected from Eke village in Udi local government area during their nuptial flight on March 15, 2013. Nutritional, antinutritional, and heavy metal analysis was carried out using conventional analytical methods. Comparing the results obtained from the chemical analysis of the samples with the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for each of them showed that the moisture content (53.9%), crude protein (42%), and lipid content (52.3%) were relatively high when compared with other edible insects. The ash content (4.1%), crude fiber content (0.28%), and carbohydrate content (1.32%) were low. Result of the antinutrient revealed that oxalate (79.2mg/100g) was the most abundant while phytate (0.33mg/100g) was the least abundant. Elemental analysis showed that iron (Fe) content of the sample was relatively high while calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and phosphorous (P) content were low. Heavy metals like lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) analyzed for were very low in the sample. The result shows that the winged termite may be used as an alternative source of food supplement.
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum L.) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtacae. Clove’s essential oil is widely used as aromatherapy and for toothache treatment. Development of extraction technology that could increase oil yield from clove would thus significantly enhance the profitability of the clove’s oil and reduce processing costs significantly. It has been shown that ultrasound-assisted extraction method which uses vibrations to extract samples with polar solvents in an ultrasonic bath can enhance extraction of phytochemicals from plant sources while reducing processing time and solvent consumption. In this this research work an essential oils was obtained from clove’s buds using an ultrasonic-assisted method with n-hexane as extraction solvent at different ultrasonic machine power rate of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 W at constant time of 20 minutes at room temperature, the chemical compounds present in the different essential oil were analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The GC-MS results show that the maximum content of eugenyl acetate in extracts was 9.24%, and were extracted from clove buds at ultrasonic powers of 300 W.
This paper is on data analysis strategy in a complex, multidimensional, and dynamic domain. The focus is on the use of data mining techniques to explore the importance of multivariate structures; using climate variables which influences climate change. Techniques involved in data mining exercise vary according to the data structures. The multivariate analysis strategy considered here involved choosing an appropriate tool to analyze a process. Factor analysis is introduced into data mining technique in order to reveal the influencing impacts of factors involved as well as solving for multicolinearity effect among the variables. The temporal nature and multidimensionality of the target variables is revealed in the model using multidimensional regression estimates. The strategy of integrating the method of several statistical techniques, using climate variables in Nigeria was employed. R2 of 0.518 was obtained from the ordinary least square regression analysis carried out and the test was not significant at 5% level of significance. However, factor analysis regression strategy gave a good fit with R2 of 0.811 and the test was significant at 5% level of significance. Based on this study, model building should go beyond the usual confirmatory data analysis (CDA), rather it should be complemented with exploratory data analysis (EDA) in order to achieve a desired result.
The incidence of stroke is usually associated with adults and the elderly. Little or no knowledge of the incidence is associated with infants, children, and young adults; as such cannot even be thought to occur before birth. In media enlightenment on the existence of stroke in infants which took place in Enugu State; many were unaware of the incidence of stroke in infants in that region. Therefore this study aimed at verifying the existence of the incidence of stroke in infants in Enugu State. Recorded data confirmed the existence of this illness in infants; although it is seen as a rear occurrence. The existing data were analysed using the Poisson distribution function to determine if the data followed a random process. The result of the analysis led to the acceptance of the fit at 5% significance level; this revealed that the data used for the study followed a random process. However it is pertinent to mention that this illness is actionable. This study therefore calls for more awareness on the existence of this illness in infants to forestall future/further occurrences.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology