The present study was aimed at investigating the relationship between some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) and Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in subjects of AA and AS Hb genotypes in Enugu metropolis, South-East Nigeria. A total of 207 subjects aged 20-70 years were recruited for the study and divided into 4 groups. Blood samples were collected from each patient from the ante-cubital vein without venous stasis. Determination of Hb genotype was done electrophoretically, while quantitation of parasites and estimation of parasite density were done microscopically. Estimation of IFN-γ and IL-12 in serum was carried out using ELISA kit (Enzo® Life Sciences, U.S.A). Data were analyzed using Graph Pad Prism version 5 and SPSS version 20 computer software at 95% confidence level and results are expressed as mean ± SEM. A comparison of the test groups showed that AA test group had significantly higher MP density (3,906 ± 436.5 parasites/µl of blood ) than AS test group (1,293 ± 179 parasites/µl of blood) (P<0.0001). The AA test group also had significantly higher IFN-γ (pg/ml) (14.36 ± 0.56 pg/ml) compared to AS test group (10.69 ± 0.40 pg/ml). IL-12 however was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in AA test subjects (13.93 ± 0.62 pg/ml) compared to the AS test subjects (23.55 ± 1.20 pg/ml). All the assayed cytokines were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the test subjects compared to the control. MP density however showed significant negative correlation (r=-0.3198; P=0.0389) with IL-12 in AS test subjects. There was no correlation (P>0.05) between IFN-γ and IL-12 in both AA and AS test subjects. There was also no correlation between gender and the cytokines in both AA test subjects IFN-γ (r=0.085, P=0.578) IL-12 (r= -0.091, P=0.552) and AS test subjects IFN-γ (r=0.000, P=0.998) IL-12 (r=0.019, P=0.904). The low IL-12 in AA test subjects must have led to progression of the disease, whereas the high IL-12 in AS test subjects must have led to increased resolution of the disease. The present study shows that pro-inflammatory cytokines actually contribute to P. falciparum malaria outcome in AA and resolution AS subjects in Enugu metropolis. The protective effect of sickle cell trait may be linked to the levels of IL-12. However, gender played no role.
This work evaluated the effect of co-administration of calcium and spices mixture (SM) on renal function parameters of lead exposed rats. Twenty five (25) male Albino rats weighing 100-123.3 g were used for the study. The animals were grouped into five (5) groups (I-V) of five rats per group. Group I received feed and water and served as the negative control. Group II received only lead chloride (25 mg/Kg body weight) and served as the positive control. Group III was co-administered 750 mg/Kg weight of calcium carbonate and 25 mg/Kg body weight of lead chloride. Group IV was co-administered 300 mg/Kg body weight of extract of spice mixture (SM) and 25mg/Kg body weight of lead chloride while group V was co-administered 300 mg/kg body weight of extract of spices mixture, 25 mg/Kg body weight of lead chloride and 750 mg/Kg body weight of calcium carbonate. All treatment was orally administered. The treatment lasted for 42 days after which blood samples were collected for the determination of renal function parameters and serum electrolytes using standard techniques and methods. The result showed significantly (p<0.05) higher plasma uric acid, creatinine, and urea in lead exposed rats in comparison to the non-exposed group. These biochemical alterations were however almost restored to the levels found in the non-exposed animals following administration of either calcium or spices mixture alone or when both were co-administered. Co-administration of SM plus calcium, or administration of calcium alone or SM alone may have ameliorative effect on lead-induced kidney dysfunction in rats.
Uterine leiomyoma also known as fibroid is a medical problem of the female reproductive tract and prevalent among black women of child-bearing age. Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a popular food seasoning agent is an oestrogen disruptor but its intake has not been linked to fibroid. Fibroid has no known chemotherapy and hysterectomy leaves huge financial burden with side effects. It is necessary to determine its safer management method. This work investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) on uterus and kidney sections of rats with monosodium glutamate-induced leiomyoma. Twenty-eight rats were used. They were divided into four groups of seven rats each and acclimatized. Fibroid was induced on three groups after daily ingestion of 750mg/kg body weight of MSG for 28 days. Negative control had no fibroid. Positive control had fibroid but remained untreated. Groups III and IV also had fibroid. Groups III and IV were continuously ingested with the same dose of MSG for the next 28 days with daily oral treatment using 250mg/kg body weight aqueous extracts of turmeric and ginger, respectively. Histological examinations were performed on the 2nd and 4th weeks, respectively, on two rats from each group for the next 28 days. Results showed nephrotoxic effects of MSG with endometrial degeneration. Group III rats gave mild histological textures of their tissues compared with Group IV rats. MSG ingestion is nephrotoxic but the use of turmeric aqueous extract alleviated this effect and could be used in fibroid of management.
The present study aims to evaluate the combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and cyanide exposure on liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Kidney functions (urea and creatinine) in rats. 16 male albino rats weighing between 100 and 150 g were utilized in the study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (n=4) as follows: Group 1 = Control; Group 2 = exposed to cadmium only (as cadmium chloride), Group 3 = exposed to cyanide only (as potassium cyanide); Group 4 = exposed to cyanide + cadmium .The exposure of the rats to the experimental treatment was done daily for 28 days. The serum liver enzymes, urea and creatinine were assayed using standard operating procedures (SOP). The results showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the levels of serum ALT, AST and ALP, Urea and creatinine in Group 2, 3 and 4 when compared with Group 1. However there was a significant decrease in AST and ALT activity in the rats in Group 4 when compared with Group 2 rats. In addition there was no significant difference in Urea and Creatinine activities among all the treated groups when comparing across the treated Groups. The result indicates that a combination of cyanide and cadmium is toxic to the liver and kidney of rats and could be deleterious to these organs, however, their combined effects was not synergistic.
The phytochemical, proximate, vitamins and mineral element composition of Coconut (Cocos nucifera) were investigated in this research. The phytochemical properties of the sample were screened qualitatively and also quantified and the result revealed a significant amount of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and reducing sugars while saponins, glycosides, soluble carbohydrate and terpenoids were found in trace amount, hydrogen cyanides not detected qualitatively. The proximate analyses of the Cocos nucifera sample was carried out using the methods described by Pearson and the results showed high level of crude fats 56.36±0.04% and carbohydrate 31.29±0.14%, a considerable amount of moisture and crude protein 8.33±0.03 and 7.53±0.05%, respectively and also, ash 2.43±0.03% and fibre 2.38±0.07%. This composition shows that the sample could be a good source of oil, carbohydrate, dietary fibre and protein. However, the methods outlined by AOAC, 2000 were used to determine the mineral composition of the Cocos nucifera seeds. The results revealed that the sample posses preponderance amount of mineral elements; magnesium 318.11±7.07 mg, calcium 25.87±0.09 mg, potassium 29.92±0.04 mg, sodium 16.92±0.06 mg, phosphorus 4.54±0.03 mg and copper 1.24±0.02mg per 100g dry weight respectively; with trace amounts of manganese 0.64±0.01 mg, zinc 0.76±0.06 mg and iron 0.62±0.01 mg. This implies that Cocos nucifera seeds no doubt is a good source of minerals despite the negligible amount of iron, zinc and manganese. The method of Association of Official and Analytical Chemists AOAC, 1990 was used for the vitamins analyses and the seed sample was also found to contain an appreciable amount of vitamin A 3.12±0.01 mg/100g, vitamin C 14.71±0.05 mg/100g, vitamin B2 1.76±0.41 mg/100g and vitamin B6 1.61±0.04mg/100g. Other vitamins analysed on the seed extract though found in trace amount were vitamin D, E, K, B1, B3, B5, B9 and B12. The results from the present study implicitly showed that Cocos nucifera seed is nutritionally potent and could be good for dietary supplements in human and animal nutrition.
Ginkgo biloba (GB) leaves and extracts have been recognized worldwide for its renowned nutritional and medicinal properties. GB tree is highly grown and used in Asian and South American countries unlike Nigeria. In this study, we examined the nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of GB leaves (whole dried, and aqueous and ethanol extracts) grown in Nigeria. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method was used to determine the proximate and vitamin compositions while Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to analyze the minerals. Anti-nutrients analysis was done using gas chromatography. The results of analyses on whole dried leaves showed that the nutritional composition was high in carbohydrate (59.70+1.02mg/100g) and energy value (287.00+2.59Kcal/g) and low in protein (6.65+0.38mg/100g), lipid (2.40+0.14mg/100g), fibre (2.50+0.21mg/100g) and moisture (15.65+0.38mg/100g). High concentrations was also observed for vitamins A (79.75+9.05), C (79.20+2.56) and E (59.31+2.84) while vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and B12 (1.53+0.04, 2.98+0.62, 2.44+0.25, 3.57+0.24 and 0.28+0.01 mg/100g) respectively, were found in lower concentrations. The mineral analysis also showed high concentrations in macro minerals especially calcium and magnesium (24.620+0.410 and 18.450+0.28mg/100g) followed by phosphorous (4.896+0.003mg/100g), potassium (4.332+0.000mg/100g), and sodium (2.340+0.001mg/100g). The concentrations in micro minerals were iron (6.667+0.003mg/100g), zinc (1.851+0.001mg/100g), manganese (0.626+0.025mg/100g), copper (0.640+0.000mg/100g) and selenium (0.391+0.003mg/100g). However, the absence of molybedenum (Mo) in the leaves was observed. The calcium/phosphorous and sodium/potassium ratios were 5.029+0.087 and 0.540+0.000 mg/100g respectively. The anti-nutrients analysis of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaf showed low concentrations of phytate, oxalate and tannin. The low concentrations observed are considered to be non-toxic to man. These investigations have revealed the nutritional potentials of Ginkgo biloba leaves grown in Nigeria. The findings therefore, will be useful for nutritional and medical practice in Nigeria and beyond for maintenance of good health of individuals.
Lindane (C6H6Cl6) an organochlorine pesticide has been used in agriculture and domestic purposes for several years. The aim of present study was to analyze the oxidative effect of lindane which caused biochemical and ultrastructural changes in adult male wistar rats and to evaluate the possible protective effect of Curcumin (C21H20O6). Tissues damage was assessed by histopathological observation. Curcumin plays an important role as an antioxidant and consequently expected to protect tissues from damage caused by reactive oxygen metabolites. Rats were divided into seven groups. Group-A, was given normal diet and water ad libitum. Lindane (30 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally for 14 and 28 days in group- B and group-C respectively. Curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight) was given to Group-D and Group-E. Lindane (30 mg/kg body weight) along with Curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally for 28 days in group-F. Group-G, was allowed to metabolize after 14 days of exposure to lindane. Lindane administration lead to a significantly (P<0.001) increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) associated with reduction in levels of GSH (Glutathione), activity of SOD (Super Oxide Dismutase), CAT (Catalase) and GST (Glutahione-S-transferase). Pre-feeding and post-feeding of Curcumin resulted in decreased hepatic levels of lipid peroxides (LPO) and increased GSH (C10H17N3O6S), SOD, CAT (Catalase) and GST (Glutahione-S-transferase) activities. Results revealed that Curcumin in combination with lindane partially or totally alleviated its toxic effects on the studied parameters. In conclusion, Curcumin have beneficial effects and could be able to antagonize lindane toxicity.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics including resins that line food and beverage containers. BPA is known to leach from these products into containerized foods and drinks, and is therefore thought to be routinely ingested. In this present study the possible effect of BPA on blood lipid metabolism were investigated in rats. Female albino Wistar rats were administrated oral doses of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 µg BPA/kgbw/day once to determine effect of acute exposure and repeatedly for seven days in another set of test animals to determine the effects of sub-chronic exposure. Following the treatment, serum levels of lipid parameters were examined using the Chemwell Chemical Analyser. All data were expressed as means ± SD. The result of the study revealed that BPA increased blood triglycerides and LDL of exposed rats at both acute and sub-chronic phases.
Body weight is the total mass or weight of a person or animal obtained without any external factor than the component of the body. Overweight or underweight may influence the fertility status of either animal or human as the case may be. The aim of this study is to determine whether weight loss has any correlation with male or female infertility. Twenty four Wister albino rats were sleep deprived and used in this study. The albino rats were certified healthy before sleep deprivation. Body weight of the rats were measured before and after sleep deprivation. The pre sleep deprivation body weight values of the albino rats served as control for weight loss. Serum specimen was also collected from the rats before and after sleep deprivation for the assay of some fertility hormones. The pre sleep deprivation assay results of the fertility hormones equally served as control for post sleep deprivation status of the fertility hormones. The fertility hormones assayed include follicle stimulation hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), Prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Testosterone and estradiol. The results showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in body weight of albino rats after sleep deprivation when compared with the control. There were significant decreases (P<0.05) in testosterone, estradiol, prolactin and TSH serum levels after sleep deprivation when compared with their controls respectively, while there were no significant changes (P>0.05) in the serum level of FSH and LH. These results indicate that all other relevant factors being equal, body weight loss has negative effect on male and female fertility, using body weight and fertility hormone as indices.
Some biochemical and haematological changes have been reported in malaria parasitemic pregnant women in urban and rural malaria-endemic areas, indicating different oxidative status of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some antioxidant vitamins in symptomatic malaria parasitemic pregnant women to re-appraise the need and extent of vitamin supplementations in this condition. It is a cross-sectional study done between September, 2011 and March, 2012. The study involved 119 pregnant women aged between 24 and 36years, who presented in antenatal clinics with full symptoms of malaria infection. They were within the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Malaria density was determined by absolute malaria parasite count while the vitamins (A, C and E) were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. Our results showed that vitamin A concentrations in controls, mild and moderate malaria densities were 16.48 ± 0.75µg/ml, 15.72 ± 0.58µg/ml and 16.19 ± 1.40µg/ml respectively, vitamin C were 31.31 ± 0.97mg/dL; 38.33 ± 2.73mg/dL and 52.17mg/dL respectively while vitamin E were 0.89 ± 0.09mg/dL; 2.05 ± 0.27mg/dL and 3.32 ± 0.23mg/dL respectively. The results indicated that there were no significant changes in vitamin A while vitamins C and E increased significantly as malaria density increased. The changes in these vitamins are indications of increased endogenous mobilization to fight oxidative stress. We opine that the results are suggestive of extra oxidative stress in symptomatic malaria parasitemia, and that inadequate concentrations of these antioxidants can potentiate the virulence of these parasites.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology