The corrosion inhibition efficiency of expired Abarelix drug on the surface of the mild steel (MS) in 3 M HCl media was examined by weight loss, gasometric, atomic absorption spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and AC impedance techniques. Gravimetric (weight loss) results showed that, protection efficiency is directly related to the expired Abarelix drug concentration and inversely proportional to the immersion time. Adsorption of expired Abarelix drug species on the mild steel in acid media was confirmed by gasometric, and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. Further, the decrease in corrosion current density value with an increase in the amount of expired Abarelix drug is an indication of corrosion inhibiting action of the expired Abarelix drug on the metal surface in acid system. Nyquist plots clearly indicate the inhibition role of expired Abarelix drug on the metal surface. Surface (scanning electron microscopy [SEM]) technique also showed that, morphology observed in protected MS system is different from the unprotected system.
Uterine leiomyoma also known as fibroid is a medical problem of the female reproductive tract and prevalent among black women of child-bearing age. Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a popular food seasoning agent is an oestrogen disruptor but its intake has not been linked to fibroid. Fibroid has no known chemotherapy and hysterectomy leaves huge financial burden with side effects. It is necessary to determine its safer management method. This work investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) on uterus and kidney sections of rats with monosodium glutamate-induced leiomyoma. Twenty-eight rats were used. They were divided into four groups of seven rats each and acclimatized. Fibroid was induced on three groups after daily ingestion of 750mg/kg body weight of MSG for 28 days. Negative control had no fibroid. Positive control had fibroid but remained untreated. Groups III and IV also had fibroid. Groups III and IV were continuously ingested with the same dose of MSG for the next 28 days with daily oral treatment using 250mg/kg body weight aqueous extracts of turmeric and ginger, respectively. Histological examinations were performed on the 2nd and 4th weeks, respectively, on two rats from each group for the next 28 days. Results showed nephrotoxic effects of MSG with endometrial degeneration. Group III rats gave mild histological textures of their tissues compared with Group IV rats. MSG ingestion is nephrotoxic but the use of turmeric aqueous extract alleviated this effect and could be used in fibroid of management.
Nigerian oil and gas drilling operations are highly depended on the imported bentonite for use as drilling fluid. The importation drains the nation’s foreign reserve despite the fact that the country is equally blessed with huge deposit of this natural resource even though of inferior quality. This research characterized the Warsale montmorillonite clay from Dikwa formation. The clay was beneficiated (wet and dry) using Na2CO3 and the beneficiated drilling muds formulated. Drilling fluids formulated from the beneficiated clay did not possess the minimum rheological properties for use in oil and gas drilling operations. However, an improvement in rheological and filtration properties was observed when beneficiated with Na2CO3 and treated with CMC. The optimum values for plastic viscosity and gel strength were obtained at 6-10%wt Na2CO3 concentrations. The fluid loss of muds from Warsale bentonite was improved by about 50% when treated with Carboxy-Methyl-Cellulose (CMC) and meets the API requirements. The pH and sand content of the muds also fall within the API standards. The rheological and filtration properties of the local clay were found to be inferior to the reference Wyoming bentonite due to low concentrations of smectites and high levels of contaminants in the compositions of the local clays. However, this study shows that given the proper conditioning, beneficiated Warsale clay will give a good promise for drilling purposes at optimum sodium carbonate and additives concentrations.
The present study aims to evaluate the combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and cyanide exposure on liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Kidney functions (urea and creatinine) in rats. 16 male albino rats weighing between 100 and 150 g were utilized in the study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (n=4) as follows: Group 1 = Control; Group 2 = exposed to cadmium only (as cadmium chloride), Group 3 = exposed to cyanide only (as potassium cyanide); Group 4 = exposed to cyanide + cadmium .The exposure of the rats to the experimental treatment was done daily for 28 days. The serum liver enzymes, urea and creatinine were assayed using standard operating procedures (SOP). The results showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the levels of serum ALT, AST and ALP, Urea and creatinine in Group 2, 3 and 4 when compared with Group 1. However there was a significant decrease in AST and ALT activity in the rats in Group 4 when compared with Group 2 rats. In addition there was no significant difference in Urea and Creatinine activities among all the treated groups when comparing across the treated Groups. The result indicates that a combination of cyanide and cadmium is toxic to the liver and kidney of rats and could be deleterious to these organs, however, their combined effects was not synergistic.
The occurrence, virulence markers and antifungal susceptibility of vaginal yeast isolates from contraceptive users (CUs) and non-contraceptive users (NCUs) were determined using standard techniques. Five species of candida comprising C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis were isolated from the high vaginal swab (HVS) samples from CUs and NCUs. Cryptococcus neoformans was obtained only from HVS samples from CUs. There was no statistically significant difference (P ˃0.05) between the occurrences of yeast isolates among the CUs and NCUs. All HVS samples from the CUs aged < 20 yrs had isolates, while 80.0 %, 75.0 % and 60.0 % HVS samples from CUs with age groups of 21-25 yrs, 26-30 yrs and >31 yrs had yeast isolates, respectively. Among the NCUs, the highest and lowest occurrences of isolates were obtained from age group of 21-25 yrs and > 31 yrs, respectively. More than 62.5 % yeast isolates were sensitive to fluconazole, ≥ 32.5 % isolates were nystatin resistant, while between 50.0 % and 65.0 % isolates were sensitive to clotrimazole and itraconazole. C. neoformans and C. tropicalis displayed high sensitivity to clotrimazole and itraconazole, respectively. C. albicans (n=6), C. tropicalis (n=1) and C. glabrata (n=2) exhibited weak haemolytic activity, 50.0 % C. parapsilosis exhibited weak lipolytic activity, while C. albicans (n=9) and non-albicans Candida species (n=11) showed positivity for protease production. Though a large number of yeast isolates were sensitive to the antifungal drugs, intermittent antifungal susceptibility testings are necessary for monitoring trends of antifungal resistance among the pathogenic vaginal yeasts.
This paper reports the evaluation of heavy metal deposits and distribution in Challawa industrial area of Kano metropolis, using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results showed that lead (Pb), Cobalt (Co), Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe), were present in an increasing order. The comparatively high iron content in both incinerated tannery wastes, and contaminated soils has high implication on plant growth and therefore be of great concern to soil conservationist for agricultural purposes.
The effectiveness of cotton seed dextrose agar, groundnut seed dextrose agar and kernel dextrose agar in culturing fungi was studied by culturing fungi from yam rot (Dioscorea rotundata). The research demonstrated the choice of the isolated fungi to various media, and revealed that some of the isolated fungi showed the same occurrence in different media. Aspergillus flavus showed preference for kernel dextrose and groundnut seed dextrose agar than Sabouraud dextrose agar and cotton seed dextrose agar. Fusarium oxysporum showed preference to kernel and cotton seed dextrose agar. The occurrence of Rhizopus spp was only higher in Sabouraud and groundnut seed dextrose agar. In comparison of cultures, the cotton seed dextrose agar culture showed the highest growth of the fungi isolates (66.8±2.35%) while groundnut dextrose agar culture showed the least growth of the fungi isolates (49.8±2.35%). No significant difference in the growth of the fungi isolates was found between cultures (p>0.05). This research demonstrated that groundnut seed and cotton seed dextrose agar can be used to culture specific fungi of interest. Hence, they would provide suitable alternative media for culturing fungi of interest and reduce reliance on potatoes dextrose agar. The use of these media may provide promising interest in research where interest may be to identify, enumerate and characterize fungi.
Undergraduate medical training is considered the most important stage in medical education. The study was designed to determine whether medical students of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, Nigeria were satisfied with their training in Medicine. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. All medical students of the institution who have spent one full academic session in the university were included in the study. Information was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Three hundred and eighty five students participated in the study representing a response rate of 83.7%. The mean age of respondents was 23.2±3.4 years and majority, 64.2% were males. Majority, 62.6% were satisfied with quality of lecturing. A minor proportion, 19.5% were of the opinion that the university library was well equipped. Also, 27.3% opined that medical training obtained in the university matches international standards. Majority, 57.4% were satisfied with their training in Medicine. Predictors of satisfaction with medical training included being willing to study Medicine again, (AOR= 2.8, 95% CI: 1.8- 4.3) and having good interactions with lecturers during classes, (AOR= 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1- 3.4). Majority of the respondents were not satisfied with the state of infrastructure in the institution. Perhaps, this prompted the students to infer that their training does not meet international standard. However majority of the students were satisfied with their medical training. There is need to improve on the state of infrastructure/amenities in the medical school. A supportive academic staff especially during academic activities is invaluable in the training of medical doctors and should be encouraged.
High malaria burden has led to an increased use of insecticides in the tropical and subtropical regions. Pyrethroids chemicals, commercially available pesticides, are greatly in use these days, thereby resulting in an elevated production of free radicals in subjects which can result in oxidative damage. The influence of pyrethroids based insecticides on peripheral and bone marrow cells was investigated using adult wistar rats. A total of 36 Wistar rats were randomly selected for the study and divided into two groups, twenty one rats were exposed to 1.2%w/v pyrethroids insecticides and the remaining rats grouped as non-exposed. Each group was further subdivided into three groups as 7-days, 21-days and 42-days of exposure groups respectively. Afterwards, the peripheral blood cells, bone marrow cells and the level of biomarkers of oxidative stress were assessed. Data were statistically analysed and level of significance was set at p<0.05. The mean red cell indices were significantly increased in the 42-days pyrethroids exposure than the 7-days exposure group. There was also an increase in the levels of expression of catalase (CAT) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the exposed groups while superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed significant reduction. Exposure to pyrethroids insecticides caused significant alterations in the haematopoetic elements and the severity of this pathological effect correlated with the duration of exposure. Pyrethroids insecticides can therefore cause oxidative stress and inflammation as well as peripheral and bone marrow perturbation in rats when exposed to as few as 7 days.
Cloves ( Syzygium aromaticum L.) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtacae. Clove's essential oil is widely used as aromatherapy and for toothache treatment. Development of extraction technology that could increase oil yield from clove would thus significantly enhance the profitability of the clove's oil and reduce processing costs significantly. In this research work an essential oil was obtained from using Sohxlet and an ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods with n-hexane as extraction solvent. The oil extract was analyzed for its chemical composition using gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC-MS). The results of analysis show that the essentialoil yield were found to be 54.70% and 71.55% while the eugenyl acetatein extracts obtained were found to be 5.72% and 9.24% for sohxlet and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods respectively.
Fresh water fishes are commonly found in river, different ponds, lakes and canals. Fresh water fishes are the common shelter for various species of digenetic trematode parasites in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh). Fishes carry heavy infection of helminth parasites and serve as the potent source of these parasites. Fishes are gold coin of aquatic environment and play an important major role in economy of persons depending on the river as well as coastal areas. Their population rapidly dropped down due change in environmental conditions. We have studied helminth parasites of fresh water fishes river Gomti. (26°51'30" North 80°56'14" East). These parasites are abundantly found in river Gomti of Lucknow. Infection of these parasites may result in poor growth, postponed sexual maturity and mortality of fishes, and also cause human as well as different animal diseases due to weak association of host and parasites relationship. In this paper we have reported the seasonal fluctuation in the prevalence, intensity and relative density patterns and systematic taxonomical study of digenean in fresh water fishes from river Gomti Lucknow (India).
In 2015, the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) in partnership with the Subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment Program (SURE-P) conducted an integrated multi-disease HIV counseling and testing outreach campaign in Tudun Wada LGA of Kano State, Nigeria to assess the prevalence of HIV and other communicable and non-communicable diseases in that local council. Data on different aspects of the screening and treatment campaign were collated using a Federal Government of Nigeria outreach client data form and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. A total of 3114 members of the community registered for the outreach but only 2869 accessed services. While 51.6% of all the clients were females, 29.9% were in full employment, 8.9% had a body mass index above 25kg/m2, 52.1% engaged in very active exercise and only 7.9% ate fruits daily. About 40.8%,12%, 8.6% and 0.7% tested positive for malaria, HBsAg, HCV and HIV/AIDS on screening with rapid diagnostic kits. Even though 25.4% and 25.1% had a family history of hypertension and diabetes only 4% and 6.5% had abnormal readings using standardized WHO recommended cut-off points. Malaria and peptic ulcer disease were the most prevalent diseases seen and managed by the medical teams with rates of 59.8% and 22.8% respectively. The integrated multi-diseases outreach carried out in this local council was well attended. Clients were screened for both communicable and non-communicable diseases and referred to the general hospital in the area for follow-up and further management. Political support from the National Agency for the Control of AIDs, the state government and from relevant line ministries, robust advocacy, communication with electronic and print media, training of teams and sustained social mobilization were veritable tools to the overall success of the campaign in Kano State.
An investigation was carried out on the plasmid profile of Streptococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantanum isolated from a total of 120 Ogi samples collected from Oyingbo, a local market in Lagos State. Morphological, cultural, physiological characterization and API kits were employed to isolate and identify Streptococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantanum. All the isolates harboured plasmids ranging from 1-7 in numbers and 3kb – 21.5 kb in sizes. Distinct plasmid patterns were seen using the electrophoresis of plasmid DNA method. In this study, single strains and mixed cultures of the isolates were investigated for acetaldehyde production in yoghurt (fermented milk product) with the isolates using column trapping gas liquid chromatography technique. The results show that acetaldehyde production of the isolates were somewhat variable from strain to strain and hence could be used as starter cultures for yoghurt production with market acceptability.
Space available for the spinal cord (SAC) is a measure of cord functional reserves. Reduction in SAC value may predispose to cord injury. This study assessed the accuracy of MRI derived SAC in predicting the risk of spinal cord injury by comparing the subaxial cervical spine SAC values obtained in asymptomatic Nigerians and those with traumatic cervical spine cord injury (CSCI). Prospective, cross-sectional MRI-based study of selected 100 consenting asymptomatic adults and 88 CSCI patients done in Memfys Hospital, Enugu Nigeria from 2012 to 2017. SAC was calculated by subtracting disc level midsagittal cord dimension from corresponding level spinal canal dimension. Age range was between 21 to 50yrs. Data was analyzed using inferential and descriptive statistics. Mean SAC was used in calculating the sensitivity and NPV for SCI at each level. Average SAC value for each disc level for the asymptomatic and those with CSCI respectively were: C3/4 (4.9 + 1.2mm, 2.5 +/-1.7 mm), C4/5 (4.5+/-1.0mm, 2.2+/-1.4mm), C5/6 (4.7+/-1.0mm, 2.3+/-1.6mm), C6/7 (5.1+/-1.1mm, 2.7+/-1.9mm), C7/T1 (5.7 +/-1.2mm, 4.2+/-1.9mm). P-values were <0.05 especially at C4/5 and C5/6. Frequencies of cord injury level were: 43.2% (C5/6), 28.4% (C4/5), 17.1% (C6/7), 5.7% (C3/4), 3.4% (C7/T1), and 2.2% (C2/3). MRI derived SAC has a sensitivity of 93% and NPV of 90% in predicting an individual’s risk of SCI. SAC has a high sensitivity and NPV and will be a good screening tool in predicting the risk of subaxial CSCI. SAC is significantly lower in the CSCI group especially at C4/5 and C5/6 levels.
The present study was aimed at investigating the relationship between some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) and Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in subjects of AA and AS Hb genotypes in Enugu metropolis, South-East Nigeria. A total of 207 subjects aged 20-70 years were recruited for the study and divided into 4 groups. Blood samples were collected from each patient from the ante-cubital vein without venous stasis. Determination of Hb genotype was done electrophoretically, while quantitation of parasites and estimation of parasite density were done microscopically. Estimation of IFN-γ and IL-12 in serum was carried out using ELISA kit (Enzo® Life Sciences, U.S.A). Data were analyzed using Graph Pad Prism version 5 and SPSS version 20 computer software at 95% confidence level and results are expressed as mean ± SEM. A comparison of the test groups showed that AA test group had significantly higher MP density (3,906 ± 436.5 parasites/µl of blood ) than AS test group (1,293 ± 179 parasites/µl of blood) (P<0.0001). The AA test group also had significantly higher IFN-γ (pg/ml) (14.36 ± 0.56 pg/ml) compared to AS test group (10.69 ± 0.40 pg/ml). IL-12 however was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in AA test subjects (13.93 ± 0.62 pg/ml) compared to the AS test subjects (23.55 ± 1.20 pg/ml). All the assayed cytokines were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the test subjects compared to the control. MP density however showed significant negative correlation (r=-0.3198; P=0.0389) with IL-12 in AS test subjects. There was no correlation (P>0.05) between IFN-γ and IL-12 in both AA and AS test subjects. There was also no correlation between gender and the cytokines in both AA test subjects IFN-γ (r=0.085, P=0.578) IL-12 (r= -0.091, P=0.552) and AS test subjects IFN-γ (r=0.000, P=0.998) IL-12 (r=0.019, P=0.904). The low IL-12 in AA test subjects must have led to progression of the disease, whereas the high IL-12 in AS test subjects must have led to increased resolution of the disease. The present study shows that pro-inflammatory cytokines actually contribute to P. falciparum malaria outcome in AA and resolution AS subjects in Enugu metropolis. The protective effect of sickle cell trait may be linked to the levels of IL-12. However, gender played no role.
The experiment to evaluate the effect of insecticide (chilli pepper aqueous extract) and fungicide (carbendazim 12% W.P. + Mancozeb 63% W.P.) combinations on the growth and yield of watermelon (citrullus lunatus) in Enugu area southeastern Nigeria was conducted during the 2016 cropping season. The research was carried out at the faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management Teaching and Research Farm of Enugu State University of Science and Technology Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria. The experimental design was 3x2 factorial in a randomized complete block (RCB) replicated three (3) times, using “crimson sweet” watermelon as a test crop. Parameters measured were days to 50% flowering, vine length (cm) number of fruits per plant, number of marketable fruits per plants, number of rotten fruits per plant and fruit yield (tonha‑1). The result of the experiment showed a significant (P = 0.05) interaction effect of insecticide (Chilli Pepper aqueous extract) and fungicide (Carbendazim 12% W.P. + Mancozeb 63% W.P.) combinations on all the parameters measured except on the number of fruits per plant.
The need to provide an alternative to other set time retarders, preventing cold joints in concreting, eliminating the need for constant vibration which might lead to loss of consistency and also offset the effect of high down hole temperature motivated this research. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the effect of sugar on the set time on ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete considering the fact that sugar is readily available and at lower cost compared to other known retarders. The effects of sugar at concentrations of 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.07, 0.09. 0.25, 0.30, 0.40, 0.45, 0.50 and 1.0 % by weight of cement on cement paste and its strength at 28 days was investigated. The setting time of the cement was found to increase from 121, 154, 220, 262, 282, 309, 342, 328, 128, 78, 68, 53, 40 minutes when the sugar content was varied from 0 % sugar content to 0.5 % sugar content respectively. Peak time was attained at 0.07% sugar content where a time of 342 minutes delay in set was recorded. Steady decline starts at 0.09 % sugar content and flash setting comes in between 0.25 and 0.5 %. The compressive strength test also showed slight strength gains with peaks at 0.02 % and 0.07 % where its load bearing capacity was determined to be 533 and 470 kN respectively. Thus, sugar can be used as a setting time retarder since its action does not amount to a loss in strength of the tested samples.
This work evaluated the effect of co-administration of calcium and spices mixture (SM) on renal function parameters of lead exposed rats. Twenty five (25) male Albino rats weighing 100-123.3 g were used for the study. The animals were grouped into five (5) groups (I-V) of five rats per group. Group I received feed and water and served as the negative control. Group II received only lead chloride (25 mg/Kg body weight) and served as the positive control. Group III was co-administered 750 mg/Kg weight of calcium carbonate and 25 mg/Kg body weight of lead chloride. Group IV was co-administered 300 mg/Kg body weight of extract of spice mixture (SM) and 25mg/Kg body weight of lead chloride while group V was co-administered 300 mg/kg body weight of extract of spices mixture, 25 mg/Kg body weight of lead chloride and 750 mg/Kg body weight of calcium carbonate. All treatment was orally administered. The treatment lasted for 42 days after which blood samples were collected for the determination of renal function parameters and serum electrolytes using standard techniques and methods. The result showed significantly (p<0.05) higher plasma uric acid, creatinine, and urea in lead exposed rats in comparison to the non-exposed group. These biochemical alterations were however almost restored to the levels found in the non-exposed animals following administration of either calcium or spices mixture alone or when both were co-administered. Co-administration of SM plus calcium, or administration of calcium alone or SM alone may have ameliorative effect on lead-induced kidney dysfunction in rats.
The evaluation of the effects of cropping practices on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soil is of great importance in sustainable agriculture. This study investigated the spore density, root colonization and composition of native AMF in soils under two different cropping systems (continuous cropping and crop rotation) in a derived Savannah, Nigeria. Rhizosphere soils and root samples were collected from five fields to assessed AMF spores density and root colonization. The spore density and root colonization was highest in field plot under crop rotation practice (273.3 spores per 50 g dry soil and 82.7 respectively). Maize and soybean cultivation significantly produced higher spore density and root colonization compared to sesame and sunflower. AMF spores of Glomus, Gigaspora, Acaulospora, and Scutellospora species were identified based on morphological characteristics. Glomus specie was the most dominant genus in soils with highest relative abundance of 68.7% followed by Acaulospora (19.8%) and Scutellospora (13.5%), with lowest relative abundance of AM spores observed for Gigaspora (5.6%) and unknown genera (2.5%). The results contribute to a better understanding of AMF composition as influenced by the cropping practices and host plants, and could be valuable in regulating the AMF community structure, and providing a primary basis for sustainable crop production.
The anti-hepatotoxicity effect of aqueous extract of Gongronema latifolium (GLE) on Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity was studied in 16 albino Wistar rats. Biochemical examination included assay for the following liver enzymes: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Liver tissue injury was examined by histological staining of the liver with necrosis of the tissue. Administration of the toxicant (induced) in group B shows that there was significant (p<0.05) and rapid increase in the AST, ALT and ALP level (55.80 ± 0.96, 23.07 ± 0.77 and 47.29 ± 1.15 respectively), when compared with the control. Treatment with 100mg/kg GLE (group C) in experimental condition showed that there was significant (p<0.05) decrease in the AST, ALT and ALP levels (38.51 ± 1.81, 19.7 ± 0.46 and 37.2 ± 1.56 respectively) when compared with group B (induced only). In addition, treatment with high dose of 200mg/kg GLE (group D), also under experimental condition, shows that there was further decrease in the AST, ALT and ALP level (28.6 ± 0.74, 14.98 ± 0.27 and 32.00 ± 1.38 respectively) when compared with group B and C. Histological examination in group B showed that there were poorly perfused hepatic tissues with cytoplasmic ground glass appearance, moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells, extravasation of red blood cells and clearing of hepatocytes. Treatment with 100mg/kg GLE showed moderate restoration of the damage tissue with mild extravasation of red blood cells, clearing of hepatocytes and mild cytoplasmic ground glass appearance in group C. Treatment with 200mg/kg GLE in group D showed regeneration of hepatic tissue with good perfusion, showing that GLE has anti-hepatotoxicity effect against the liver damage induced by paracetamol.
The ability of tidal power to reliably contribute energy to electricity networks is directly related to the characteristics of the tidal resource. This research presents an investigation on the tidal energy potential of Calabar, Cross-River State (Latitude 4.9667°N, Longitude 8.3167° E) a coastal region of Nigeria along the Atlantic Ocean. An analysis of the characteristics of the tidal power resource of Calabar in Southern Nigeria has been carried out, based on daily observed tidal height for the period of ten years (2001 – 2010). Patterns of tides availability are presented, with data demonstrating distinct patterns of daily, monthly and yearly variability – tides exhibited a sinusoidal trend over the ten-year period. The average yearly tidal height range of Calabar was 2.65 – 3.02 meters.
Handwritten signature is a behavioral trait in our societal and official life which can be used for human verification and authentication. Although a signature can be accepted only if it comes from an intended person, the possibility of more than one signature made by the same person being exactly the same is less. Some features of the signature may vary even when made by the same person, so detecting a falsified signature from an unauthorized person becomes a challenging task. This research work titled ‘Design and Implementation of Machine Learning-Based Signature Verification System (MLBSVS) is aimed at developing an effective and reliable model that detects feature extracts to recognize signature using machine learning tools. The model is trained with datasets of signatures and predictions are made whether a provided signature is from an intended person or forged. This model will enhance security in organizations for identification of unauthorized persons. MLBSVS was developed and implemented using MySQL and MATLAB as Software requirements and the hardware requirements which include HP Proliant Micro Server with 6GB Memory, Processor speed of 1.5GHz, 250GB HDD and 1Gbps NIC, Client computer with 2GB Memory, Processor speed of 2.5 GHz, 250GB HDD and 100Mbps NIC, Visual Display Unit, Keyboard, mouse, scanner or camera and Ethernet cables. In conclusion, a system that can learn from signatures and make predictions whether a signature is genuine or forged has been successfully implemented
Carpolobia lutea (cattle stick) is a shrub of 15ft height which is patronized traditionally for the management of reproductive dysfunction. However, its effect on reproductive system has not been scientifically reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Capolobia lutea root extract on male reproductive parameters in rabbits. Fifteen male rabbits (1.5 – 1.8kg) were randomly assigned into 3 groups: group 1: (control) received 1% tween 20, group 2 and group 3: received 40mg/kg and 80mg/kg of Carpolobia lutea root extract dissolved in 1% tween 20 respectively for 28 days. Blood samples were obtained pre and post-administration of the extract for the analysis of Serum Testosterone, Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone. The animals were weighed, sacrificed and dissected, while relative testicular weight and histology of the testes was done and caudal epididymis was used for spermiogram. Relative testicular weight showed dose dependent decrease and significant only at 80mg/kg body weight when compared with control. Sperm count increased significantly at 40mg/kg but not at 80mg/kg body weight. Sperm motility showed dose dependent increase and significant only at 80mg/kg body weight. Sperm viability had no significant differences. Sperm morphology showed that mid-piece had a dose dependent increase in abnormalities and significant only at 80mg/kg body weight, tail abnormalities showed significant decrease at 80mg/kg body weight when compared with control animals. Serum Testosterone, LH and FSH had no significant changes. Tissue histology of the testes expressed dose dependent damage. This study have shown evidence that, C. lutea root extract may not have a positive effect on the reproductive parameters. Thus more studies are needed to elucidate its suspected role in the enhancement of male reproductive function
Background: Lead poisoning has been implicated as one of the causes of renal impairment. This study explores the ability of Ethanol root extract of Mucuna pruriens (EREMP) to attenuate the effect of lead poisoning on the kidney. Materials and method: Thirty-five female Wistar rats (180g), of 12 months old were divided into 7 groups (A-G) (n=5). Group A received normal saline, Group-B was exposed to lead poisoning; 120 mg/kg body weight of lead-acetate. C-D received (100 and 200) mg/kg body weight of EREMP only; the rationale was to observe the sole effect of the extract. Groups E and F animals were exposed to lead poisoning (120 mg/kg bw of lead acetate) simultaneously with 100 and 200 mg/kg bw respectively of EREMP. Group G received 120 mg/kg-bw of lead-acetate simultaneously with Vit E . All treatments were given orally and lasted for 21 days. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation 24 hours after the last administration. Blood was collected for renal function tests while the kidney was harvested and processed for routine H & E staining. Results: Mucuna pruriens root extract significantly reduced the urea and creatinine levels of rats in the treatment groups (E-F) compared to group B (p<0.05). The histological sections of the kidney of rats in group B (lead-acetate only) showed marked widespread renal tubular necrosis with mononuclear leucocytic infiltration of the renal interstitium when compared with groups E-F and group G treated with Vit E (100mg/kg-bw). Conclusion: Mucuna can be used to manage renal dysfunction.
The mineral composition of stored freeze dried cow milk cheese and soy cheese in selected packaging materials was investigated. 300g each of fresh cow milk and soy milk cheese was prepared and cut into sizes of 2x2cm dimension and a thickness of 0.2cm. The initial properties were determined using 50g each of the cheeses while the remaining 250g was freeze dried. The initial properties of the freeze dried samples were determined using a portion of each of the samples. A randomized experimental block design was adopted. The freeze dried samples were packaged in sterilized glass jar, plastic jar and polythene film while the unpackaged sample was used as the control sample. The samples were stored at ambient room conditions for 3 months. Samples were analyzed for mineral composition monthly during the storage period. Data obtained were analyzed statistically to determine the effect of the packaging materials and storage durations on the mineral composition of freeze dried cheese samples. Result of the mineral composition for the fresh cow milk and soy cheese for potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium, and sodium were 7.0±0.3, 5.22±0.11, 6.32±0.12, 11.12±0.40, 3.30±0.06 and 7.04±0.04, 5.14±0.14, 6.20±0.32, 10.76±0.60, 3.52±0.85 respectively while the result for the freeze dried cow milk and soy cheese before storage were 7.12±0.12, 5.20±0.40, 5.45±0.12, 15.85±0.03, 5.20±0.40 and 7.19±0.32, 5.10±0.60, 5.32±0.11, 13.40±0.35, 5.40±0.32 respectively. Results showed that statistically, there was no significant difference in the mineral composition of the stored cheese samples during the storage period (3 months). The packaging material type used and storage duration has no significant effect on the minerals of the cow milk and soy milk cheeses after 3 months of storage. This indicates that all the packaging material types used retain the mineral composition of freeze dried cheese.
E-health is a technological tool with the capability of mitigating the myriads of challenges facing the healthcare sector in Nigeria if properly accepted, adopted and deployed. The evaluation of technological tools is usually carried out using a Technology Acceptance Model to improve the usage of these tools. One of such, is the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. However, the different economic, social and political environments underscore the need to modify these models to account for the peculiarities of the environment of study. In this study, a modified UTAUT model is developed for evaluating the use and acceptance of E-health services in Lagos, Nigeria. The study develops a modified UTAUT model from factors identified in a focus group discussion and existing literature. The developed model was validated using data describing E-health services usage that was collected using a questionnaire from ten healthcare facilities in Lagos State. 210 responses were received from users of E-health services in the ten healthcare facilities. The questionnaire measured ten identified factors influencing E-health services usage and acceptance. The results of regression analysis revealed that the Social Influence variable had an R-squared value of 0.729. The corresponding values for facilitating condition, Anxiety, Policy, Effort Expectancy, Awareness, Attitude, Self-Efficacy, ICT Infrastructure and Performance Expectancy are 0.550, 0.544, 0.534, 0.494, 0.489, 0.486, 0.449, 0.359 and 0.343 respectively. The result suggests that the strongest impact factor in E-health technology adoption in Nigeria is social influence which meant that most users would use the system if encouraged by their colleagues or superiors
The paper is aimed at designing a management system that monitors renewable energy battery charging system. It incorporates a locally designed Power meter using microcontroller programmed using C language and a liquid crystal display. The microcontroller uses the processing speed of a computer to initiate and execute instructions. The microcontroller is connected to the wind and solar renewable system through the ACS 712, a current sensor that measures current and voltage divider network for the voltage measurement. The analogue current and voltage readings are processed by the PIC18F452microcontroller displaying the voltage, current and power readings. The load currents connected to the input port of the Peripheral Interface Controller are fed to the battery banks to charge the batteries. The switching arrangement of relays or contactors is connected through transistors to the output port of the microcontroller. This initiates switching from one battery bank to another. This it does by measuring the load current of the two renewable energies supply and switches the larger battery banks to be charged with the higher generated load current and smaller battery bank with lower load current. This ensures the power level of the battery bank is kept fairly constant during usage. This study shows the use of a locally designed PIC based power meter using two sources of renewable energy. This is not possible using the solar charge controller which is another form of a renewable management system and only accommodate solar energy. It also has no switching system which is an important feature of the locally designed PIC based Power meter. This study also shows that the PIC base power metering is cost-effective as it can manage different renewable energy sources compared to other renewable energy management system which can manage only one kind of renewable energy source.
The slime producing multidrug resistant bacteria isolates and dipstick assay for nitrite and leucocyte esterase in the mid-stream urine (MSU) specimens of antenatal patients were determined using standard bacteriological technique, Congo red agar and urine dipsticks. Of the 245 MSU specimens collected from the subjects, 30.2 % had bacterial counts ≥ 105 CFUml-1, while 69.8 % MSU had bacterial counts ≤ 105 CFUml-1. The highest significant bacteriuria (SBU) was obtained among the subjects aged 21-30 yrs, while the subjects aged ≥ 41 yrs had the lowest SBU. A total of 30 (12.2 %) and 42 (17.1 %) MSU were positive for nitrite and leucocyte esterase, respectively. The MSU specimens with the highest SBU and occurrence of nitrite and leucocyte esterase were obtained from the subjects in their second trimester. The subjects in their first trimester harboured the highest numbers of bacterial isolates (n=135), while those in their third trimester had the lowest numbers (n=112). The slime producing bacterial isolates in decreasing order was CoN- Staphylococcus spp (18.0%) ≥ S. aureus (15.0%) ≥ S. pyogenes / E. coli (14.0%) ≥ K pneumoniae (12.0%) ≥ P. aeruginosa (11.0%) ≥ E. faecalis (9.0%) ≥ Proteus spp (7.0%). S. aureus were highly sensitive to Ceftriaxone; S. pyogenes were moderately sensitive to Nalidixic acid; ≥ 75.5 % E. coli showed sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin, ≥ 72.0 % Proteus spp were sensitive to Gentamycin, while between 33.3 % and 41.7 % S. pyogenes and E. faecalis were resistant to Amoxicillin and Erythromycin. Of the 376 isolates, 107 were non-MDR isolates, while 215 were MDR isolates. Among the MDR isolates, 113 isolates were resistant to ≤ 4 antibiotics, while 102 isolates were resistant to between 5 and 10 antibiotics. The findings of this study showed the needs to continuously monitor the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of slime producing bacteria implicated in UTI and also endeavor to avert and/or curtail slime-associated infections.
The uses of eco-friendly and biodegradable materials have been a key agenda for global advocacy. We explored the histological staining effect of Beta vulgaris (beetroot) extract on selected tissues of Wistar rats. Four healthy rats were sacrificed under ether anaesthesia. The liver, lung and brain were harvested and fixed in 10% neutral formal saline. The tissues were manually processed and stained using various procedures as follows: Sections A (Haematoxylin and Eosin), B (Beetroots extract alone), C (Beetroots extract and Eosin), and D (Beetroots extract, Eosin and vinegar as mordant). The beetroots extract alone exhibited haematoxylin acidophilic- like effect on the selected tissues. The extract and eosin combined fairly stained the cellular features compared with the routine H and E stain. An improved effect was observed in sections stained with the extract, eosin and vinegar as (mordant). The extract showed specificity for the lungs tissue. Beetroot extract can be considered as an alternative for Haematoxylin in the routine H and E histological staining technique and may require mordant as stain enhancer some tissues particularly for demonstrating the lungs.
This study investigated the effects of di-n-butylphthalate on the liver, after oral administration, to adult male albino Wistar rats. Twenty rats, weighing between 146.10g and 301.20g were arranged into groups A,B,C,D, of five rats each, and were fed with graded concentrations, 0 mg/kg, 2,000 mg/kg, 4,000 mg/kg and 6,000 mg/kg body weight of di-n-butylphthalate respectively for thirty days. Serum levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase AST, served as indices of liver function. In addition, the cell histology of the liver of the rats was also examined. The results of all the liver parameters were significantly high (P<0.05), in groups B, C. and D. when compared to the level in the control group A. Conjugated bilirubin also recorded a significantly low level (P<0.05) in the treated groups B (2.14+0.04µmol/L), C (2.18+0.05µmol/L), and D (2.22+0.02µmol/L). The histological examination of the liver cell revealed occasional portal inflammation mild fibrosis and moderate amount of nuclear pyknosis. After thirty days of treatment, the control group showed a mean weight gain of 1.31%, whereas the treated groups B, C and D recorded a significant decrease in weight of 2.02%, 2.11% and 1.19% respectively. This study indicates that the chemical, di-n- butylphthalate is organotoxic, and may affect organ functions for example liver functions, at high concentrations.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) the most common form of dementia in the elderly is a neurodegenerative disease that affects 47 millions of people worldwide. The first treatments against Alzheimer’s disease are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; however, these medications are associated with many side effects. Buchholzia coriacea seed popularly called "wonderful kola" because of its usage in traditional medicine to treat variety of illnesses. It's also called memory nut because its suspected to enhance memory and cognition. In this study , we investigated the efficacy of Buchholzia coriacea seeds (Aqueous, ethanolic, ethyl acetate & n-hexane fractions) against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in A total of 49 Wistar rats (190 -230g) were used and a total of 7 groups (n=7). Scopolamine (1mg/kg i.p), an amnesic drug was used for impairing memory. 100 mg/kg of each Buchholzia coriacea seed fractions were evaluated for amnesic activity by Morris water maze and Y maze memory model. Donepezil (5mg/kg) was used as standard drug. Animals were sacrificed after 14 days and evaluation of biochemical parameters was done viz Malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), reduced Glutathione (GSH), Catalase (CAT). Histopathological analysis was done via H&E stain. All fractions mitigated the neurodegeneration seen in scopolamine alone treated group except for ethyl acetate fraction. Treatment with Buchholzia coriacea fractions significantly decreased escape latency and increased number of crossing for Morris water maze while % alternation was increased in Y maze. The aqueous and hexane fractions did better than the others. The fractions increased the activity of SOD, GSH and CAT while decreasing MDA. These results indicated that the seeds of Buchholzia coriacea might be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in addition to its already established medicinal properties.
Calvarial fracture occurs when biomechanical stresses applied to the skull exceed its tolerance. The patterns of fracture produced will depend on the location, direction and kinetic properties of the impact and also on the intrinsic features of the bone. The aim of the study is to determine the pattern of fractures of the calvaria among head injury patients in Enugu. A prospective cross -sectional study involving 150 head injured patients with fracture of the calvaria, who presented to the Accident and Emergency Department of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital between January, 2016 and December, 2018. Information was obtained from the patients’ records and CT image findings. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Majority of the patients were aged 21-30years (29.6%). There is male preponderance (82.7%).Linear calvaria fracture accounted for the highest percentage of fracture patterns (47.3%), comminuted (18.7%), depressed (10.0%), multiple linear (8.7%) and others (15.3%). Comminuted fracture was the most associated with assault (7 out of 27 patients); linear fracture with fall from height, Basilar fracture with patients age between 31- 40years, and multiple comminuted between 41- 50 years. Frontal bone (41.9%) is the mostly affected. Road traffic accident (RTA) accounted for most head injuries with calvaria fractures (70.0%), followed by assault (18%). RTA is the most common cause of head injury in Enugu, with the frontal bone mostly affected and linear fracture being the commonest pattern of fractures of the calvaria in head injury patients.
This paper investigated hydrothermal coliquefaction of the microalga Tetraselmis sp. and cow manure at different mix ratios and the characterisation of produced biocrude. The carbon and nitrogen balances across the reactor and energy recovery were also elucidated. The study was conducted using a 1L batch reactor at 300oC and 350oC at constant reaction time of 10min using ~16w/v% solids loading. The results showed that irrespective of reaction temperature, there were substantial influence on yield and properties of biocrude. Importantly, there were up to 60% reductions in nitrogen content of biocrude, which could be due to synergistic effect from interactions of feedstock molecules during liquefaction. These findings suggest blending of Tetraselmis sp. and cow manure could improve biocrude quality, while simultaneously treating waste.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology