The corrosion inhibition efficiency of expired Abarelix drug on the surface of the mild steel (MS) in 3 M HCl media was examined by weight loss, gasometric, atomic absorption spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and AC impedance techniques. Gravimetric (weight loss) results showed that, protection efficiency is directly related to the expired Abarelix drug concentration and inversely proportional to the immersion time. Adsorption of expired Abarelix drug species on the mild steel in acid media was confirmed by gasometric, and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. Further, the decrease in corrosion current density value with an increase in the amount of expired Abarelix drug is an indication of corrosion inhibiting action of the expired Abarelix drug on the metal surface in acid system. Nyquist plots clearly indicate the inhibition role of expired Abarelix drug on the metal surface. Surface (scanning electron microscopy [SEM]) technique also showed that, morphology observed in protected MS system is different from the unprotected system.
Uterine leiomyoma also known as fibroid is a medical problem of the female reproductive tract and prevalent among black women of child-bearing age. Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a popular food seasoning agent is an oestrogen disruptor but its intake has not been linked to fibroid. Fibroid has no known chemotherapy and hysterectomy leaves huge financial burden with side effects. It is necessary to determine its safer management method. This work investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) on uterus and kidney sections of rats with monosodium glutamate-induced leiomyoma. Twenty-eight rats were used. They were divided into four groups of seven rats each and acclimatized. Fibroid was induced on three groups after daily ingestion of 750mg/kg body weight of MSG for 28 days. Negative control had no fibroid. Positive control had fibroid but remained untreated. Groups III and IV also had fibroid. Groups III and IV were continuously ingested with the same dose of MSG for the next 28 days with daily oral treatment using 250mg/kg body weight aqueous extracts of turmeric and ginger, respectively. Histological examinations were performed on the 2nd and 4th weeks, respectively, on two rats from each group for the next 28 days. Results showed nephrotoxic effects of MSG with endometrial degeneration. Group III rats gave mild histological textures of their tissues compared with Group IV rats. MSG ingestion is nephrotoxic but the use of turmeric aqueous extract alleviated this effect and could be used in fibroid of management.
Nigerian oil and gas drilling operations are highly depended on the imported bentonite for use as drilling fluid. The importation drains the nation’s foreign reserve despite the fact that the country is equally blessed with huge deposit of this natural resource even though of inferior quality. This research characterized the Warsale montmorillonite clay from Dikwa formation. The clay was beneficiated (wet and dry) using Na2CO3 and the beneficiated drilling muds formulated. Drilling fluids formulated from the beneficiated clay did not possess the minimum rheological properties for use in oil and gas drilling operations. However, an improvement in rheological and filtration properties was observed when beneficiated with Na2CO3 and treated with CMC. The optimum values for plastic viscosity and gel strength were obtained at 6-10%wt Na2CO3 concentrations. The fluid loss of muds from Warsale bentonite was improved by about 50% when treated with Carboxy-Methyl-Cellulose (CMC) and meets the API requirements. The pH and sand content of the muds also fall within the API standards. The rheological and filtration properties of the local clay were found to be inferior to the reference Wyoming bentonite due to low concentrations of smectites and high levels of contaminants in the compositions of the local clays. However, this study shows that given the proper conditioning, beneficiated Warsale clay will give a good promise for drilling purposes at optimum sodium carbonate and additives concentrations.
The present study aims to evaluate the combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and cyanide exposure on liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Kidney functions (urea and creatinine) in rats. 16 male albino rats weighing between 100 and 150 g were utilized in the study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (n=4) as follows: Group 1 = Control; Group 2 = exposed to cadmium only (as cadmium chloride), Group 3 = exposed to cyanide only (as potassium cyanide); Group 4 = exposed to cyanide + cadmium .The exposure of the rats to the experimental treatment was done daily for 28 days. The serum liver enzymes, urea and creatinine were assayed using standard operating procedures (SOP). The results showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the levels of serum ALT, AST and ALP, Urea and creatinine in Group 2, 3 and 4 when compared with Group 1. However there was a significant decrease in AST and ALT activity in the rats in Group 4 when compared with Group 2 rats. In addition there was no significant difference in Urea and Creatinine activities among all the treated groups when comparing across the treated Groups. The result indicates that a combination of cyanide and cadmium is toxic to the liver and kidney of rats and could be deleterious to these organs, however, their combined effects was not synergistic.
The occurrence, virulence markers and antifungal susceptibility of vaginal yeast isolates from contraceptive users (CUs) and non-contraceptive users (NCUs) were determined using standard techniques. Five species of candida comprising C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis were isolated from the high vaginal swab (HVS) samples from CUs and NCUs. Cryptococcus neoformans was obtained only from HVS samples from CUs. There was no statistically significant difference (P ˃0.05) between the occurrences of yeast isolates among the CUs and NCUs. All HVS samples from the CUs aged < 20 yrs had isolates, while 80.0 %, 75.0 % and 60.0 % HVS samples from CUs with age groups of 21-25 yrs, 26-30 yrs and >31 yrs had yeast isolates, respectively. Among the NCUs, the highest and lowest occurrences of isolates were obtained from age group of 21-25 yrs and > 31 yrs, respectively. More than 62.5 % yeast isolates were sensitive to fluconazole, ≥ 32.5 % isolates were nystatin resistant, while between 50.0 % and 65.0 % isolates were sensitive to clotrimazole and itraconazole. C. neoformans and C. tropicalis displayed high sensitivity to clotrimazole and itraconazole, respectively. C. albicans (n=6), C. tropicalis (n=1) and C. glabrata (n=2) exhibited weak haemolytic activity, 50.0 % C. parapsilosis exhibited weak lipolytic activity, while C. albicans (n=9) and non-albicans Candida species (n=11) showed positivity for protease production. Though a large number of yeast isolates were sensitive to the antifungal drugs, intermittent antifungal susceptibility testings are necessary for monitoring trends of antifungal resistance among the pathogenic vaginal yeasts.
This paper reports the evaluation of heavy metal deposits and distribution in Challawa industrial area of Kano metropolis, using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results showed that lead (Pb), Cobalt (Co), Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe), were present in an increasing order. The comparatively high iron content in both incinerated tannery wastes, and contaminated soils has high implication on plant growth and therefore be of great concern to soil conservationist for agricultural purposes.
The effectiveness of cotton seed dextrose agar, groundnut seed dextrose agar and kernel dextrose agar in culturing fungi was studied by culturing fungi from yam rot (Dioscorea rotundata). The research demonstrated the choice of the isolated fungi to various media, and revealed that some of the isolated fungi showed the same occurrence in different media. Aspergillus flavus showed preference for kernel dextrose and groundnut seed dextrose agar than Sabouraud dextrose agar and cotton seed dextrose agar. Fusarium oxysporum showed preference to kernel and cotton seed dextrose agar. The occurrence of Rhizopus spp was only higher in Sabouraud and groundnut seed dextrose agar. In comparison of cultures, the cotton seed dextrose agar culture showed the highest growth of the fungi isolates (66.8±2.35%) while groundnut dextrose agar culture showed the least growth of the fungi isolates (49.8±2.35%). No significant difference in the growth of the fungi isolates was found between cultures (p>0.05). This research demonstrated that groundnut seed and cotton seed dextrose agar can be used to culture specific fungi of interest. Hence, they would provide suitable alternative media for culturing fungi of interest and reduce reliance on potatoes dextrose agar. The use of these media may provide promising interest in research where interest may be to identify, enumerate and characterize fungi.
Undergraduate medical training is considered the most important stage in medical education. The study was designed to determine whether medical students of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, Nigeria were satisfied with their training in Medicine. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. All medical students of the institution who have spent one full academic session in the university were included in the study. Information was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Three hundred and eighty five students participated in the study representing a response rate of 83.7%. The mean age of respondents was 23.2±3.4 years and majority, 64.2% were males. Majority, 62.6% were satisfied with quality of lecturing. A minor proportion, 19.5% were of the opinion that the university library was well equipped. Also, 27.3% opined that medical training obtained in the university matches international standards. Majority, 57.4% were satisfied with their training in Medicine. Predictors of satisfaction with medical training included being willing to study Medicine again, (AOR= 2.8, 95% CI: 1.8- 4.3) and having good interactions with lecturers during classes, (AOR= 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1- 3.4). Majority of the respondents were not satisfied with the state of infrastructure in the institution. Perhaps, this prompted the students to infer that their training does not meet international standard. However majority of the students were satisfied with their medical training. There is need to improve on the state of infrastructure/amenities in the medical school. A supportive academic staff especially during academic activities is invaluable in the training of medical doctors and should be encouraged.
High malaria burden has led to an increased use of insecticides in the tropical and subtropical regions. Pyrethroids chemicals, commercially available pesticides, are greatly in use these days, thereby resulting in an elevated production of free radicals in subjects which can result in oxidative damage. The influence of pyrethroids based insecticides on peripheral and bone marrow cells was investigated using adult wistar rats. A total of 36 Wistar rats were randomly selected for the study and divided into two groups, twenty one rats were exposed to 1.2%w/v pyrethroids insecticides and the remaining rats grouped as non-exposed. Each group was further subdivided into three groups as 7-days, 21-days and 42-days of exposure groups respectively. Afterwards, the peripheral blood cells, bone marrow cells and the level of biomarkers of oxidative stress were assessed. Data were statistically analysed and level of significance was set at p<0.05. The mean red cell indices were significantly increased in the 42-days pyrethroids exposure than the 7-days exposure group. There was also an increase in the levels of expression of catalase (CAT) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the exposed groups while superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed significant reduction. Exposure to pyrethroids insecticides caused significant alterations in the haematopoetic elements and the severity of this pathological effect correlated with the duration of exposure. Pyrethroids insecticides can therefore cause oxidative stress and inflammation as well as peripheral and bone marrow perturbation in rats when exposed to as few as 7 days.
Cloves ( Syzygium aromaticum L.) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtacae. Clove's essential oil is widely used as aromatherapy and for toothache treatment. Development of extraction technology that could increase oil yield from clove would thus significantly enhance the profitability of the clove's oil and reduce processing costs significantly. In this research work an essential oil was obtained from using Sohxlet and an ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods with n-hexane as extraction solvent. The oil extract was analyzed for its chemical composition using gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC-MS). The results of analysis show that the essentialoil yield were found to be 54.70% and 71.55% while the eugenyl acetatein extracts obtained were found to be 5.72% and 9.24% for sohxlet and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods respectively.
Fresh water fishes are commonly found in river, different ponds, lakes and canals. Fresh water fishes are the common shelter for various species of digenetic trematode parasites in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh). Fishes carry heavy infection of helminth parasites and serve as the potent source of these parasites. Fishes are gold coin of aquatic environment and play an important major role in economy of persons depending on the river as well as coastal areas. Their population rapidly dropped down due change in environmental conditions. We have studied helminth parasites of fresh water fishes river Gomti. (26°51'30" North 80°56'14" East). These parasites are abundantly found in river Gomti of Lucknow. Infection of these parasites may result in poor growth, postponed sexual maturity and mortality of fishes, and also cause human as well as different animal diseases due to weak association of host and parasites relationship. In this paper we have reported the seasonal fluctuation in the prevalence, intensity and relative density patterns and systematic taxonomical study of digenean in fresh water fishes from river Gomti Lucknow (India).
In 2015, the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) in partnership with the Subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment Program (SURE-P) conducted an integrated multi-disease HIV counseling and testing outreach campaign in Tudun Wada LGA of Kano State, Nigeria to assess the prevalence of HIV and other communicable and non-communicable diseases in that local council. Data on different aspects of the screening and treatment campaign were collated using a Federal Government of Nigeria outreach client data form and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. A total of 3114 members of the community registered for the outreach but only 2869 accessed services. While 51.6% of all the clients were females, 29.9% were in full employment, 8.9% had a body mass index above 25kg/m2, 52.1% engaged in very active exercise and only 7.9% ate fruits daily. About 40.8%,12%, 8.6% and 0.7% tested positive for malaria, HBsAg, HCV and HIV/AIDS on screening with rapid diagnostic kits. Even though 25.4% and 25.1% had a family history of hypertension and diabetes only 4% and 6.5% had abnormal readings using standardized WHO recommended cut-off points. Malaria and peptic ulcer disease were the most prevalent diseases seen and managed by the medical teams with rates of 59.8% and 22.8% respectively. The integrated multi-diseases outreach carried out in this local council was well attended. Clients were screened for both communicable and non-communicable diseases and referred to the general hospital in the area for follow-up and further management. Political support from the National Agency for the Control of AIDs, the state government and from relevant line ministries, robust advocacy, communication with electronic and print media, training of teams and sustained social mobilization were veritable tools to the overall success of the campaign in Kano State.
An investigation was carried out on the plasmid profile of Streptococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantanum isolated from a total of 120 Ogi samples collected from Oyingbo, a local market in Lagos State. Morphological, cultural, physiological characterization and API kits were employed to isolate and identify Streptococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantanum. All the isolates harboured plasmids ranging from 1-7 in numbers and 3kb – 21.5 kb in sizes. Distinct plasmid patterns were seen using the electrophoresis of plasmid DNA method. In this study, single strains and mixed cultures of the isolates were investigated for acetaldehyde production in yoghurt (fermented milk product) with the isolates using column trapping gas liquid chromatography technique. The results show that acetaldehyde production of the isolates were somewhat variable from strain to strain and hence could be used as starter cultures for yoghurt production with market acceptability.
Space available for the spinal cord (SAC) is a measure of cord functional reserves. Reduction in SAC value may predispose to cord injury. This study assessed the accuracy of MRI derived SAC in predicting the risk of spinal cord injury by comparing the subaxial cervical spine SAC values obtained in asymptomatic Nigerians and those with traumatic cervical spine cord injury (CSCI). Prospective, cross-sectional MRI-based study of selected 100 consenting asymptomatic adults and 88 CSCI patients done in Memfys Hospital, Enugu Nigeria from 2012 to 2017. SAC was calculated by subtracting disc level midsagittal cord dimension from corresponding level spinal canal dimension. Age range was between 21 to 50yrs. Data was analyzed using inferential and descriptive statistics. Mean SAC was used in calculating the sensitivity and NPV for SCI at each level. Average SAC value for each disc level for the asymptomatic and those with CSCI respectively were: C3/4 (4.9 + 1.2mm, 2.5 +/-1.7 mm), C4/5 (4.5+/-1.0mm, 2.2+/-1.4mm), C5/6 (4.7+/-1.0mm, 2.3+/-1.6mm), C6/7 (5.1+/-1.1mm, 2.7+/-1.9mm), C7/T1 (5.7 +/-1.2mm, 4.2+/-1.9mm). P-values were <0.05 especially at C4/5 and C5/6. Frequencies of cord injury level were: 43.2% (C5/6), 28.4% (C4/5), 17.1% (C6/7), 5.7% (C3/4), 3.4% (C7/T1), and 2.2% (C2/3). MRI derived SAC has a sensitivity of 93% and NPV of 90% in predicting an individual’s risk of SCI. SAC has a high sensitivity and NPV and will be a good screening tool in predicting the risk of subaxial CSCI. SAC is significantly lower in the CSCI group especially at C4/5 and C5/6 levels.
The present study was aimed at investigating the relationship between some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) and Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in subjects of AA and AS Hb genotypes in Enugu metropolis, South-East Nigeria. A total of 207 subjects aged 20-70 years were recruited for the study and divided into 4 groups. Blood samples were collected from each patient from the ante-cubital vein without venous stasis. Determination of Hb genotype was done electrophoretically, while quantitation of parasites and estimation of parasite density were done microscopically. Estimation of IFN-γ and IL-12 in serum was carried out using ELISA kit (Enzo® Life Sciences, U.S.A). Data were analyzed using Graph Pad Prism version 5 and SPSS version 20 computer software at 95% confidence level and results are expressed as mean ± SEM. A comparison of the test groups showed that AA test group had significantly higher MP density (3,906 ± 436.5 parasites/µl of blood ) than AS test group (1,293 ± 179 parasites/µl of blood) (P<0.0001). The AA test group also had significantly higher IFN-γ (pg/ml) (14.36 ± 0.56 pg/ml) compared to AS test group (10.69 ± 0.40 pg/ml). IL-12 however was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in AA test subjects (13.93 ± 0.62 pg/ml) compared to the AS test subjects (23.55 ± 1.20 pg/ml). All the assayed cytokines were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the test subjects compared to the control. MP density however showed significant negative correlation (r=-0.3198; P=0.0389) with IL-12 in AS test subjects. There was no correlation (P>0.05) between IFN-γ and IL-12 in both AA and AS test subjects. There was also no correlation between gender and the cytokines in both AA test subjects IFN-γ (r=0.085, P=0.578) IL-12 (r= -0.091, P=0.552) and AS test subjects IFN-γ (r=0.000, P=0.998) IL-12 (r=0.019, P=0.904). The low IL-12 in AA test subjects must have led to progression of the disease, whereas the high IL-12 in AS test subjects must have led to increased resolution of the disease. The present study shows that pro-inflammatory cytokines actually contribute to P. falciparum malaria outcome in AA and resolution AS subjects in Enugu metropolis. The protective effect of sickle cell trait may be linked to the levels of IL-12. However, gender played no role.
The experiment to evaluate the effect of insecticide (chilli pepper aqueous extract) and fungicide (carbendazim 12% W.P. + Mancozeb 63% W.P.) combinations on the growth and yield of watermelon (citrullus lunatus) in Enugu area southeastern Nigeria was conducted during the 2016 cropping season. The research was carried out at the faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management Teaching and Research Farm of Enugu State University of Science and Technology Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria. The experimental design was 3x2 factorial in a randomized complete block (RCB) replicated three (3) times, using “crimson sweet” watermelon as a test crop. Parameters measured were days to 50% flowering, vine length (cm) number of fruits per plant, number of marketable fruits per plants, number of rotten fruits per plant and fruit yield (tonha‑1). The result of the experiment showed a significant (P = 0.05) interaction effect of insecticide (Chilli Pepper aqueous extract) and fungicide (Carbendazim 12% W.P. + Mancozeb 63% W.P.) combinations on all the parameters measured except on the number of fruits per plant.
The need to provide an alternative to other set time retarders, preventing cold joints in concreting, eliminating the need for constant vibration which might lead to loss of consistency and also offset the effect of high down hole temperature motivated this research. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the effect of sugar on the set time on ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete considering the fact that sugar is readily available and at lower cost compared to other known retarders. The effects of sugar at concentrations of 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.07, 0.09. 0.25, 0.30, 0.40, 0.45, 0.50 and 1.0 % by weight of cement on cement paste and its strength at 28 days was investigated. The setting time of the cement was found to increase from 121, 154, 220, 262, 282, 309, 342, 328, 128, 78, 68, 53, 40 minutes when the sugar content was varied from 0 % sugar content to 0.5 % sugar content respectively. Peak time was attained at 0.07% sugar content where a time of 342 minutes delay in set was recorded. Steady decline starts at 0.09 % sugar content and flash setting comes in between 0.25 and 0.5 %. The compressive strength test also showed slight strength gains with peaks at 0.02 % and 0.07 % where its load bearing capacity was determined to be 533 and 470 kN respectively. Thus, sugar can be used as a setting time retarder since its action does not amount to a loss in strength of the tested samples.
This work evaluated the effect of co-administration of calcium and spices mixture (SM) on renal function parameters of lead exposed rats. Twenty five (25) male Albino rats weighing 100-123.3 g were used for the study. The animals were grouped into five (5) groups (I-V) of five rats per group. Group I received feed and water and served as the negative control. Group II received only lead chloride (25 mg/Kg body weight) and served as the positive control. Group III was co-administered 750 mg/Kg weight of calcium carbonate and 25 mg/Kg body weight of lead chloride. Group IV was co-administered 300 mg/Kg body weight of extract of spice mixture (SM) and 25mg/Kg body weight of lead chloride while group V was co-administered 300 mg/kg body weight of extract of spices mixture, 25 mg/Kg body weight of lead chloride and 750 mg/Kg body weight of calcium carbonate. All treatment was orally administered. The treatment lasted for 42 days after which blood samples were collected for the determination of renal function parameters and serum electrolytes using standard techniques and methods. The result showed significantly (p<0.05) higher plasma uric acid, creatinine, and urea in lead exposed rats in comparison to the non-exposed group. These biochemical alterations were however almost restored to the levels found in the non-exposed animals following administration of either calcium or spices mixture alone or when both were co-administered. Co-administration of SM plus calcium, or administration of calcium alone or SM alone may have ameliorative effect on lead-induced kidney dysfunction in rats.
The evaluation of the effects of cropping practices on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soil is of great importance in sustainable agriculture. This study investigated the spore density, root colonization and composition of native AMF in soils under two different cropping systems (continuous cropping and crop rotation) in a derived Savannah, Nigeria. Rhizosphere soils and root samples were collected from five fields to assessed AMF spores density and root colonization. The spore density and root colonization was highest in field plot under crop rotation practice (273.3 spores per 50 g dry soil and 82.7 respectively). Maize and soybean cultivation significantly produced higher spore density and root colonization compared to sesame and sunflower. AMF spores of Glomus, Gigaspora, Acaulospora, and Scutellospora species were identified based on morphological characteristics. Glomus specie was the most dominant genus in soils with highest relative abundance of 68.7% followed by Acaulospora (19.8%) and Scutellospora (13.5%), with lowest relative abundance of AM spores observed for Gigaspora (5.6%) and unknown genera (2.5%). The results contribute to a better understanding of AMF composition as influenced by the cropping practices and host plants, and could be valuable in regulating the AMF community structure, and providing a primary basis for sustainable crop production.
The anti-hepatotoxicity effect of aqueous extract of Gongronema latifolium (GLE) on Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity was studied in 16 albino Wistar rats. Biochemical examination included assay for the following liver enzymes: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Liver tissue injury was examined by histological staining of the liver with necrosis of the tissue. Administration of the toxicant (induced) in group B shows that there was significant (p<0.05) and rapid increase in the AST, ALT and ALP level (55.80 ± 0.96, 23.07 ± 0.77 and 47.29 ± 1.15 respectively), when compared with the control. Treatment with 100mg/kg GLE (group C) in experimental condition showed that there was significant (p<0.05) decrease in the AST, ALT and ALP levels (38.51 ± 1.81, 19.7 ± 0.46 and 37.2 ± 1.56 respectively) when compared with group B (induced only). In addition, treatment with high dose of 200mg/kg GLE (group D), also under experimental condition, shows that there was further decrease in the AST, ALT and ALP level (28.6 ± 0.74, 14.98 ± 0.27 and 32.00 ± 1.38 respectively) when compared with group B and C. Histological examination in group B showed that there were poorly perfused hepatic tissues with cytoplasmic ground glass appearance, moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells, extravasation of red blood cells and clearing of hepatocytes. Treatment with 100mg/kg GLE showed moderate restoration of the damage tissue with mild extravasation of red blood cells, clearing of hepatocytes and mild cytoplasmic ground glass appearance in group C. Treatment with 200mg/kg GLE in group D showed regeneration of hepatic tissue with good perfusion, showing that GLE has anti-hepatotoxicity effect against the liver damage induced by paracetamol.
The ability of tidal power to reliably contribute energy to electricity networks is directly related to the characteristics of the tidal resource. This research presents an investigation on the tidal energy potential of Calabar, Cross-River State (Latitude 4.9667°N, Longitude 8.3167° E) a coastal region of Nigeria along the Atlantic Ocean. An analysis of the characteristics of the tidal power resource of Calabar in Southern Nigeria has been carried out, based on daily observed tidal height for the period of ten years (2001 – 2010). Patterns of tides availability are presented, with data demonstrating distinct patterns of daily, monthly and yearly variability – tides exhibited a sinusoidal trend over the ten-year period. The average yearly tidal height range of Calabar was 2.65 – 3.02 meters.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology