This study investigated the adjuvant effect of anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory co-treatment on Isoniazid- induced seizure. A total of twenty (20) healthy adult Wistar rats, with an average weight of 210kg, were used and divided into five (5) groups of four(4) rats per group. Seizures were induced in the animals in groups 2, 3, 4, 5 using 300mg/kg isoniazid single dose p.o, while animals in group 1 served as a control group and were given 0.1ml of normal saline (placebo). Group 2 was the untreated (positive) seizure group, while animals in group 3 were treated with 5mg/kg diazepam and group 4 were treated with 50mg/kg hydrocortisone, those in group 5 were treated with a combination of 5mg/kg diazepam and 50mg/kg hydrocortisone for 5days. Sections of the hippocampus were immunohistochemically stained for astrocyte expression using the Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) marker. The seizure group exhibited positive immunoreactivity to GFAP with astrogliosis. Hydrocortisone and diazepam groups revealed restored normal astrocytes expression. The combined therapy provided a synergist effect depicted as retraction of most astrocytes. So, a combination of anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory agents should be considered in seizure management.
The pinnacle of advances in food processing offered a tremendous advantage in the preservation of foods with the aid of food additives. One of the commonly used food preservatives is the derivatives of sulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite (SMB). In this study, the teratogenic effect of SMB is evaluated using the Chicken Embryo Test. The 2.5, 10 and 40 ppm of SMB were administered into chicken eggs using the standard procedure. The 40 samples of eggs were placed in a commercial incubator. After 5 days incubation period, the eggs were examined for specific developmental anomalies. The results showed that malformations and deformities were observed in chicken embryo and there were even suppressions of growth and development, especially in the 40 ppm concentration. Thus, the study has shown that SMB probably triggers teratogenic effects on the developmental stages in chicken embryo.
The use of cyclophosphamide in the treatment of malignancies is associated with bone marrow suppression, with its attendant decrease in blood parameters leading to leucopenia, anaemia, thrombocytopenia and other abnormalities. These side effects limit the use of cyclophosphamide, as ferrous sulphate has not been able to solve this problem. Many clinicians result to blood transfusion in order to boost the blood parameters to a level that will withstand cyclophosphamide use. This study aims at exploring the prophylaxis potential of Mucuna flagellipes leaf extract against cyclophosphamide-induced bone marrow suppression. Twenty Wistar rats were used for this experiment. The rats were divided into 5 groups, each group had 4 rats. Group 1 was control; groups 2-5 were treated with 100mg/Kg of cyclophosphamide; groups 3 and 4 also received 250mg/Kg and 500mg/Kg of extract, respectively, while group 5 received 400mg/Kg of ferrous sulphate. There was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the packed cell volume and white blood cell count in group 2 when compared with group 1. Groups 3 and 4 showed a statistically significant increase in the packed cell volume (P=0.003) and white blood cell count (P=0.015). There was also an increase in the number of proliferating cells in the bone marrow of groups 3 and 4. Mucuna flagellipes leaf extract increases packed cell volume and white blood cell count and the number of proliferating cells in the bone marrow in the presence of cyclophosphamide. Mucuna flagellipes leaf extract can be used in clinical practice to cushion the bone marrow suppression effect, leukopenia and anaemia, that follows the use of cyclophosphamide in the treatment of malignancies.
Exposure to a low dose of silver has been considered safe but recent studies have shown that long-time exposure to silver is harmful. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of colloidal silver solution on the haematological parameters of albino rabbits orally treated with 2.5ml per day of the solution for 3 months and 6 months. Twenty-two Albino rabbits were grouped into two of 11 Rabbits. Group one (subjects) was treated with Silver solution for six months and fed with commercially prepared rabbit pellets and clean water, while the group two (control) was fed with only commercially prepared rabbit pellets and clean water for six months. The drug was administered to the subjects via the oral route. After three and six months of drug administration, blood samples were collected from each animal in the test groups and the haematological parameters were analysed and compared to the control group. Mean PCV was raised in 3months (35.09%) and 6months (39.27%) in subjects as compared with control (33.0%). Similarly, mean Hb increased significantly from 10.15g/dl in control to 11.28g/dl in subjects at 6 months (p<0.05). Mean RBC increased from 4.28x106µl in control to 5.39x106 µl in 3 months and 11.28x106µl in 6 months (p<0.05). A similar trend was also observed in WBC and platelets. On the other hand, the mean MCV decreased significantly from 77.18fl in control to 65.18fl in subjects at 3 months and 66.55fl at 6 months (p<0.05). Also, the mean MCH and MCHC decreased significantly at 3 months and 6 months in subjects. The deviation from the control of most haematological parameters of albino rabbits after exposure to silver solution for six months found in this study is evidence that long-time exposure to silver solution significantly alters the haematological parameters of the exposed animals
Raffia palm sap was analyzed for its microbial, pH, and alcohol components at different stages of batch fermentation for 96 hours. Microorganisms isolated during fermentation were Gluconobacter sp., Lactobacillus sp., Candida albicans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As fermentation progressed, pH decreased from 5.4 to 4.6 (from 0 hours to 96 hours), while alcohol contents increased from 1.8% v/v to 6.23% v/v (from 0 hours to 24 hours), and then started to decline. Candida albicans were not detected from 48 hours of fermentation; while Gluconobacter sp., Lactobacillus sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae persisted till the end of the fermentation period studied. No significant statistical correlation (p>0.05) was observed: between alcohol production rates and specific microbial growth rates; and among specific microbial growth rates. Similarly, this study revealed no significant statistical correlation in population growth patterns among microbial isolates. Results obtained from this study showed that most of the alcohol produced in raffia palm sap, fermentation occurred within the first 48 hours of fermentation; and though total microbial populations did not significantly change during fermentation, specific microbial populations were noticeably altered during fermentation.
Biostatistics is an important field of study, both to statisticians, medical/ health, and environmental scientists. Its application has been very useful in solving some critical health issues. In health issues like pregnancy, the birth outcome is usually expected with a lot of anxiety. This study aimed at applying Biostatistics to examine some possible factors that can influence the birth outcome in a pregnancy; ranging from the number of pregnancies by a mother to the gestational age of a mother. To achieve this aim, data on birth outcomes based on these factors were collected from the records Unit of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital. Correlation analysis was used to check if there exists an association between birth outcome and the factors considered and the degree of the association that exist among them. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA); a multivariate strategy use for classifying observations, into known groups was used to classify the Birth outcome into Stillbirth and Alive birth. From the analysis, Prior Probabilities result of 0.50 indicated that the two birth outcomes were given an equal probability. The result of this study identified infant weight to be influencing the birth outcome. The analysis result also pointed out an important process that often poses a big challenge in data collation; the case of misclassification. This study discovered that some births were misclassified as stillbirth/alive birth instead of alive birth/stillbirth.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology