This paper investigated hydrothermal coliquefaction of the microalga Tetraselmis sp. and cow manure at different mix ratios and the characterisation of produced biocrude. The carbon and nitrogen balances across the reactor and energy recovery were also elucidated. The study was conducted using a 1L batch reactor at 300oC and 350oC at constant reaction time of 10min using ~16w/v% solids loading. The results showed that irrespective of reaction temperature, there were substantial influence on yield and properties of biocrude. Importantly, there were up to 60% reductions in nitrogen content of biocrude, which could be due to synergistic effect from interactions of feedstock molecules during liquefaction. These findings suggest blending of Tetraselmis sp. and cow manure could improve biocrude quality, while simultaneously treating waste.
Handwritten signature is a behavioral trait in our societal and official life which can be used for human verification and authentication. Although a signature can be accepted only if it comes from an intended person, the possibility of more than one signature made by the same person being exactly the same is less. Some features of the signature may vary even when made by the same person, so detecting a falsified signature from an unauthorized person becomes a challenging task. This research work titled ‘Design and Implementation of Machine Learning-Based Signature Verification System (MLBSVS) is aimed at developing an effective and reliable model that detects feature extracts to recognize signature using machine learning tools. The model is trained with datasets of signatures and predictions are made whether a provided signature is from an intended person or forged. This model will enhance security in organizations for identification of unauthorized persons. MLBSVS was developed and implemented using MySQL and MATLAB as Software requirements and the hardware requirements which include HP Proliant Micro Server with 6GB Memory, Processor speed of 1.5GHz, 250GB HDD and 1Gbps NIC, Client computer with 2GB Memory, Processor speed of 2.5 GHz, 250GB HDD and 100Mbps NIC, Visual Display Unit, Keyboard, mouse, scanner or camera and Ethernet cables. In conclusion, a system that can learn from signatures and make predictions whether a signature is genuine or forged has been successfully implemented
E-health is a technological tool with the capability of mitigating the myriads of challenges facing the healthcare sector in Nigeria if properly accepted, adopted and deployed. The evaluation of technological tools is usually carried out using a Technology Acceptance Model to improve the usage of these tools. One of such, is the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. However, the different economic, social and political environments underscore the need to modify these models to account for the peculiarities of the environment of study. In this study, a modified UTAUT model is developed for evaluating the use and acceptance of E-health services in Lagos, Nigeria. The study develops a modified UTAUT model from factors identified in a focus group discussion and existing literature. The developed model was validated using data describing E-health services usage that was collected using a questionnaire from ten healthcare facilities in Lagos State. 210 responses were received from users of E-health services in the ten healthcare facilities. The questionnaire measured ten identified factors influencing E-health services usage and acceptance. The results of regression analysis revealed that the Social Influence variable had an R-squared value of 0.729. The corresponding values for facilitating condition, Anxiety, Policy, Effort Expectancy, Awareness, Attitude, Self-Efficacy, ICT Infrastructure and Performance Expectancy are 0.550, 0.544, 0.534, 0.494, 0.489, 0.486, 0.449, 0.359 and 0.343 respectively. The result suggests that the strongest impact factor in E-health technology adoption in Nigeria is social influence which meant that most users would use the system if encouraged by their colleagues or superiors
The paper is aimed at designing a management system that monitors renewable energy battery charging system. It incorporates a locally designed Power meter using microcontroller programmed using C language and a liquid crystal display. The microcontroller uses the processing speed of a computer to initiate and execute instructions. The microcontroller is connected to the wind and solar renewable system through the ACS 712, a current sensor that measures current and voltage divider network for the voltage measurement. The analogue current and voltage readings are processed by the PIC18F452microcontroller displaying the voltage, current and power readings. The load currents connected to the input port of the Peripheral Interface Controller are fed to the battery banks to charge the batteries. The switching arrangement of relays or contactors is connected through transistors to the output port of the microcontroller. This initiates switching from one battery bank to another. This it does by measuring the load current of the two renewable energies supply and switches the larger battery banks to be charged with the higher generated load current and smaller battery bank with lower load current. This ensures the power level of the battery bank is kept fairly constant during usage. This study shows the use of a locally designed PIC based power meter using two sources of renewable energy. This is not possible using the solar charge controller which is another form of a renewable management system and only accommodate solar energy. It also has no switching system which is an important feature of the locally designed PIC based Power meter. This study also shows that the PIC base power metering is cost-effective as it can manage different renewable energy sources compared to other renewable energy management system which can manage only one kind of renewable energy source.
The need to provide an alternative to other set time retarders, preventing cold joints in concreting, eliminating the need for constant vibration which might lead to loss of consistency and also offset the effect of high down hole temperature motivated this research. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the effect of sugar on the set time on ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete considering the fact that sugar is readily available and at lower cost compared to other known retarders. The effects of sugar at concentrations of 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.07, 0.09. 0.25, 0.30, 0.40, 0.45, 0.50 and 1.0 % by weight of cement on cement paste and its strength at 28 days was investigated. The setting time of the cement was found to increase from 121, 154, 220, 262, 282, 309, 342, 328, 128, 78, 68, 53, 40 minutes when the sugar content was varied from 0 % sugar content to 0.5 % sugar content respectively. Peak time was attained at 0.07% sugar content where a time of 342 minutes delay in set was recorded. Steady decline starts at 0.09 % sugar content and flash setting comes in between 0.25 and 0.5 %. The compressive strength test also showed slight strength gains with peaks at 0.02 % and 0.07 % where its load bearing capacity was determined to be 533 and 470 kN respectively. Thus, sugar can be used as a setting time retarder since its action does not amount to a loss in strength of the tested samples.
The ability of tidal power to reliably contribute energy to electricity networks is directly related to the characteristics of the tidal resource. This research presents an investigation on the tidal energy potential of Calabar, Cross-River State (Latitude 4.9667°N, Longitude 8.3167° E) a coastal region of Nigeria along the Atlantic Ocean. An analysis of the characteristics of the tidal power resource of Calabar in Southern Nigeria has been carried out, based on daily observed tidal height for the period of ten years (2001 – 2010). Patterns of tides availability are presented, with data demonstrating distinct patterns of daily, monthly and yearly variability – tides exhibited a sinusoidal trend over the ten-year period. The average yearly tidal height range of Calabar was 2.65 – 3.02 meters.
Nigerian oil and gas drilling operations are highly depended on the imported bentonite for use as drilling fluid. The importation drains the nation’s foreign reserve despite the fact that the country is equally blessed with huge deposit of this natural resource even though of inferior quality. This research characterized the Warsale montmorillonite clay from Dikwa formation. The clay was beneficiated (wet and dry) using Na2CO3 and the beneficiated drilling muds formulated. Drilling fluids formulated from the beneficiated clay did not possess the minimum rheological properties for use in oil and gas drilling operations. However, an improvement in rheological and filtration properties was observed when beneficiated with Na2CO3 and treated with CMC. The optimum values for plastic viscosity and gel strength were obtained at 6-10%wt Na2CO3 concentrations. The fluid loss of muds from Warsale bentonite was improved by about 50% when treated with Carboxy-Methyl-Cellulose (CMC) and meets the API requirements. The pH and sand content of the muds also fall within the API standards. The rheological and filtration properties of the local clay were found to be inferior to the reference Wyoming bentonite due to low concentrations of smectites and high levels of contaminants in the compositions of the local clays. However, this study shows that given the proper conditioning, beneficiated Warsale clay will give a good promise for drilling purposes at optimum sodium carbonate and additives concentrations.
Cloves ( Syzygium aromaticum L.) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtacae. Clove's essential oil is widely used as aromatherapy and for toothache treatment. Development of extraction technology that could increase oil yield from clove would thus significantly enhance the profitability of the clove's oil and reduce processing costs significantly. In this research work an essential oil was obtained from using Sohxlet and an ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods with n-hexane as extraction solvent. The oil extract was analyzed for its chemical composition using gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC-MS). The results of analysis show that the essentialoil yield were found to be 54.70% and 71.55% while the eugenyl acetatein extracts obtained were found to be 5.72% and 9.24% for sohxlet and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods respectively.
This research investigated the study on the coagulation of bakery waste water using bambara nut husk. It equally studied the effect of process parameters like temperature (30-360C), time (10-50mins), coagulant concentration (400-1000mg/l) and pH (2-8) on the total suspended solid content (TSS) of the bakery waste water. Proximate analysis of the coagulant and characterisation of the bakery wastewater were done. The coagulation study was done using the jar test method based on standard bench scale Nephlometric method for the examination of water and wastewater. It was observed that increase in temperature did not favour the coagulation process. Increase in time from 10 to 50mins decreased the TSS of the wastewater. Increase in coagulant concentration from 400-800mg/l decreased the TSS of the wastewater, but further increase to 1000mg/l increased the TSS. Increase in pH from 2-6 decreased the TSS, but further increase to 8 increased it. Characterisation of the wastewater after the coagulation shows that lead and nitrate were completely removed after the treatment, while chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand were reduced. It was equally observed that dissolved oxygen which was 22.5mg/l before the treatment was increased to 55.1mg/l after the treatment.
A study of seed development and maturation in edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was conducted on field-grown plants. The main objective of this present research was to investigate the physico-functional (bulk and true densities of the flour; hydration capacity, hydration coefficient, hydration index, swelling capacity, swelling coefficient, swelling index, moisture uptake, electrical conductivity and pH) properties of bean seeds during maturity, in view of designing necessary processing and handling equipment, and formulation of complementary foods. Physico-functional properties of three bean varieties (iron, honey and butter brown) were evaluated in three maturity stages of 14, 21, and 28 days after peak anthesis (DAPA). Results of the study showed large variability in all the physico-functional properties of the three bean varieties during maturation. There were significant (P ≤0.05) differences among selected seed lots in most of the parameters, and maximum seed functional quality was recorded at 28 DAPA. As maturation increased from 14 DAPA to 28 DAPA for the iron, honey and butter brown bean seeds, the hydration capacity increased from 0.230 to 0.469 (g/seed), 0.108 to 0.253 (g/seed) and 0.101 to 0.244 (g/seed). Hydration coefficient increased from 1.86 to 2.043%, 1.77 to 1.93% and 1.71 to 1.91%. Hydration index increased from 0.029 to 0.027, 0.026 to 0.109 and 0.024 to 0.109. Swelling coefficient increased from 1.4 to 1.74%, 1.91 to 2.65% and 2.167 to 3.125%; while the swelling index increased from 0.013 to 0.025, 0.031 to 0.053 and 0.038 to 0.071. Conclusively, the three bean varieties investigated have great potential as functional agents in the food processing industries. The results of this study are expected to be useful for plant breeders, consumers, and the food processors.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology