Fresh water fishes are commonly found in river, different ponds, lakes and canals. Fresh water fishes are the common shelter for various species of digenetic trematode parasites in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh). Fishes carry heavy infection of helminth parasites and serve as the potent source of these parasites. Fishes are gold coin of aquatic environment and play an important major role in economy of persons depending on the river as well as coastal areas. Their population rapidly dropped down due change in environmental conditions. We have studied helminth parasites of fresh water fishes river Gomti. (26°51'30" North 80°56'14" East). These parasites are abundantly found in river Gomti of Lucknow. Infection of these parasites may result in poor growth, postponed sexual maturity and mortality of fishes, and also cause human as well as different animal diseases due to weak association of host and parasites relationship. In this paper we have reported the seasonal fluctuation in the prevalence, intensity and relative density patterns and systematic taxonomical study of digenean in fresh water fishes from river Gomti Lucknow (India).
An investigation was carried out on the plasmid profile of Streptococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantanum isolated from a total of 120 Ogi samples collected from Oyingbo, a local market in Lagos State. Morphological, cultural, physiological characterization and API kits were employed to isolate and identify Streptococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantanum. All the isolates harboured plasmids ranging from 1-7 in numbers and 3kb – 21.5 kb in sizes. Distinct plasmid patterns were seen using the electrophoresis of plasmid DNA method. In this study, single strains and mixed cultures of the isolates were investigated for acetaldehyde production in yoghurt (fermented milk product) with the isolates using column trapping gas liquid chromatography technique. The results show that acetaldehyde production of the isolates were somewhat variable from strain to strain and hence could be used as starter cultures for yoghurt production with market acceptability.
The anti-hepatotoxicity effect of aqueous extract of Gongronema latifolium (GLE) on Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity was studied in 16 albino Wistar rats. Biochemical examination included assay for the following liver enzymes: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Liver tissue injury was examined by histological staining of the liver with necrosis of the tissue. Administration of the toxicant (induced) in group B shows that there was significant (p<0.05) and rapid increase in the AST, ALT and ALP level (55.80 ± 0.96, 23.07 ± 0.77 and 47.29 ± 1.15 respectively), when compared with the control. Treatment with 100mg/kg GLE (group C) in experimental condition showed that there was significant (p<0.05) decrease in the AST, ALT and ALP levels (38.51 ± 1.81, 19.7 ± 0.46 and 37.2 ± 1.56 respectively) when compared with group B (induced only). In addition, treatment with high dose of 200mg/kg GLE (group D), also under experimental condition, shows that there was further decrease in the AST, ALT and ALP level (28.6 ± 0.74, 14.98 ± 0.27 and 32.00 ± 1.38 respectively) when compared with group B and C. Histological examination in group B showed that there were poorly perfused hepatic tissues with cytoplasmic ground glass appearance, moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells, extravasation of red blood cells and clearing of hepatocytes. Treatment with 100mg/kg GLE showed moderate restoration of the damage tissue with mild extravasation of red blood cells, clearing of hepatocytes and mild cytoplasmic ground glass appearance in group C. Treatment with 200mg/kg GLE in group D showed regeneration of hepatic tissue with good perfusion, showing that GLE has anti-hepatotoxicity effect against the liver damage induced by paracetamol.
The occurrence, virulence markers and antifungal susceptibility of vaginal yeast isolates from contraceptive users (CUs) and non-contraceptive users (NCUs) were determined using standard techniques. Five species of candida comprising C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis were isolated from the high vaginal swab (HVS) samples from CUs and NCUs. Cryptococcus neoformans was obtained only from HVS samples from CUs. There was no statistically significant difference (P ˃0.05) between the occurrences of yeast isolates among the CUs and NCUs. All HVS samples from the CUs aged < 20 yrs had isolates, while 80.0 %, 75.0 % and 60.0 % HVS samples from CUs with age groups of 21-25 yrs, 26-30 yrs and >31 yrs had yeast isolates, respectively. Among the NCUs, the highest and lowest occurrences of isolates were obtained from age group of 21-25 yrs and > 31 yrs, respectively. More than 62.5 % yeast isolates were sensitive to fluconazole, ≥ 32.5 % isolates were nystatin resistant, while between 50.0 % and 65.0 % isolates were sensitive to clotrimazole and itraconazole. C. neoformans and C. tropicalis displayed high sensitivity to clotrimazole and itraconazole, respectively. C. albicans (n=6), C. tropicalis (n=1) and C. glabrata (n=2) exhibited weak haemolytic activity, 50.0 % C. parapsilosis exhibited weak lipolytic activity, while C. albicans (n=9) and non-albicans Candida species (n=11) showed positivity for protease production. Though a large number of yeast isolates were sensitive to the antifungal drugs, intermittent antifungal susceptibility testings are necessary for monitoring trends of antifungal resistance among the pathogenic vaginal yeasts.
The effectiveness of cotton seed dextrose agar, groundnut seed dextrose agar and kernel dextrose agar in culturing fungi was studied by culturing fungi from yam rot (Dioscorea rotundata). The research demonstrated the choice of the isolated fungi to various media, and revealed that some of the isolated fungi showed the same occurrence in different media. Aspergillus flavus showed preference for kernel dextrose and groundnut seed dextrose agar than Sabouraud dextrose agar and cotton seed dextrose agar. Fusarium oxysporum showed preference to kernel and cotton seed dextrose agar. The occurrence of Rhizopus spp was only higher in Sabouraud and groundnut seed dextrose agar. In comparison of cultures, the cotton seed dextrose agar culture showed the highest growth of the fungi isolates (66.8±2.35%) while groundnut dextrose agar culture showed the least growth of the fungi isolates (49.8±2.35%). No significant difference in the growth of the fungi isolates was found between cultures (p>0.05). This research demonstrated that groundnut seed and cotton seed dextrose agar can be used to culture specific fungi of interest. Hence, they would provide suitable alternative media for culturing fungi of interest and reduce reliance on potatoes dextrose agar. The use of these media may provide promising interest in research where interest may be to identify, enumerate and characterize fungi.
Biodiesel production using homogenous catalysts associates with high energy consumption and production cost due to the complicated separation and purification of the products. In this investigation, a solid base catalyst, 10%K-CaO/MgO was synthesized, analyzed and used to produce biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil with methanol. The catalyst loading was 0.4 % mass of the oil while the transesterification times were 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes at 60oC. The methyl esters yields were 94.20, 92.00, 82.13, 82.81 and 82.09 % respectively. There was no glycerol in any of the five products. Transesterification time of 20 minutes was found to be enough to produce biodiesel. The catalyst used in this study was capable of producing biodiesel without co-product glycerol. This process is less expensive compared to homogenous process.
The flesh and shell of the West African Mud creeper, Tympanotonus fuscatus var radula from Abule-Eledu Creek were analysed by Flame and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry for their contents of the macro-minerals: calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium, and the micro-minerals: iron, zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, lead and cadmium. The highest macro-mineral was phosphorus; 86±14.15 mg/100g in flesh and 67.05±18.85 mg/100g in shell, while the least was magnesium; 19.58±0.96 mg/100g in flesh and 35.3±0.64 mg/100g in shell. The shell of the investigated periwinkle was significantly higher (p<0.05) in content of calcium, magnesium and potassium than in the flesh. The concentrations of micro-minerals; copper (1.25 mg/100g), zinc (0.76 mg/100g), chromium (0.06 mg/100g) and iron (6.00 mg/100g) in the flesh samples were higher than the concentration in the shell and consequently higher than FEPA standard limits of these elements in sea food. It has been observed that Tympanotonus fuscatus var radula from Abule-Eledu Creek could provide a significant proportion of needed inorganic nutrients; these relatively high concentrations of trace metals give certain restrictions on the dietary intake.
Infertility in humans has rapidly increased prompting researchers to screen herbal extracts and formulations to improve fertility. The aim of this project is to ascertain the efficacy of Addyzoa and some local herbal fertility enhancers on sperm and their effects on some biochemical parameters. Adult Swiss albino male mice were placed in 11 cages of 5 animals each. Animals in cage 1 were administered only water i.e. control group, group 2 was administered Addyzoa, an Ayurvedic fertility enhancer while animals in groups 3 to 11 received local herbal fertility enhancers at different concentrations for 45 days. On the 46th day, the animals were sacrificed. Some sperm and biochemical parameters were assayed. In groups 3, 6 and 11, the animals showed significant (P≤0.05) increase in sperm count while groups 6 and 11 exhibited significant (P≤0.05) increase in sperm motility compared to groups 1 and 2. Photomicrographs showed different sperm morphological aberrations. ALP levels of groups 3, 4 and 6 was significantly (P˂0.05) low while ALT concentration of groups 7 and 11 was significantly (P˂0.05) low compared to group 1. Group 1 showed significant (P˂0.05) increase in AST concentration compared to groups 7, 8 and 10. These results suggests that the herbal boosters administered to groups 3, 6 and 11 improved the quality and quantity of sperm possibly by enhancing asthenozoosermia, increased sperm formation thereby increasing oligozoospermia, supporting and improving teratozoospermia and size thereby preventing DNA damage to sperms.
This study investigated the presence of van C, a vancomycin resistant gene in some Enterococcus spp. isolated from clinical samples from National Hospital, Abuja (NHA), a tertiary hospital in Abuja, Nigeria. The samples collected for the research included stool, urine, wound and environmental swabs which were cultured on bile esculin azide agar and the isolates were identified with microgen test kit. The susceptibility testing was done with vancomycin disks. Isolates that were resistant to vancomycin by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method were selected for minimum inhibition concentration using E-test strips. Their DNA was extracted to determine the presence of van C genes in 17 of the isolates having MIC of ≥ 4µg/ml and ≤ 8µg/ml. The van genes present were amplified by polymerase chain reaction.
Stress due to transportation and one week laboratory acclimation on the African catfish, Heterobranchus bidorsalis procured from New Calabar River, Aluu in Rivers State of Nigeria caused significant reduction of Red Blood Cell (RBC), Blood Platelet (BP) counts, Packed Cell Volume (PCV) as well as haemoglobin contents (HC ) p<0.05. Conversely, stress of transportation and acclimation led to significant elevation of total leucocyte (TL) counts, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) indices, blood osmolality and glucose levels (p<0.05).The reduction in erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts is as a result of reduced activity of haematopoietic organs due to stress of transportation and acclimation. The elevated glucose and white cell counts is attributed to alarm reaction, preparing the fish to defend itself against invading pathogens. Consequently, the body builds up a reserve of energy which ought to be expended. The stress of transportation and acclimation (handling, sorting, injury, overcrowding,) and poor water quality normally damage the mucous or slime layer that surrounds the fish. Under such a circumstance, H. bidorsalis, being a freshwater species, absorbs much of the acclimation water and this contributes substantially to the reduced haematocrit and elevated osmolality observed.
The Editor in Chief, Journal of Experimental Research Department of Anatomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, College Of Medicine (ESUCOM), GRA Enugu, Nigeria.
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Enugu State University of Science and Technology